Autonomous co-operation addresses the control problem of logistic processes characterized by dynamical changing parameters and complex system behaviour. During control procedures erratic, non-predictable changes of parameters can occur. Therefore, future planning and control has to face severe and vital uncertainties. Conventional hierarchical systems are amplifying these difficulties because of the additional time delay of information transfer and additional calculation time. On the other hand, autonomous co-operation enables logistic objects e. Therefore, this book aims to give a profound understanding of autonomous co-operation and to examine its potentials to increase the robustness and positive emergence of logistic processes substantially.
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Dokument wird geladen. Neues Denken. Neue Materialien. Robert M. Wie geht es weiter? Tauchen Sie mit uns ein in die spannende Welt mo- derner Materialforschung. Our publications, again, reached a new high, our results have been published in the leading journals of our research fields and the acquisition of external funding has exceeded our goals. We were able to demonstrate that our range spans from basic research to applications: INNOCISE GmbH, founded in , will leverage our successful research in the field of bio-inspired adhesive systems in inno- vative solutions for applications in robotics, handling and automation.
What is next? We have identified two future topics for our institute: biomedical materials and materials for the digital environment. The renovation work for our exten- sion building, which we are preparing for our future topics, has just begun. We are also entering into new strategic cooperation with partners in medicine and computer science — for only together can we create such innovations..
Delve with us into the exciting world of modern ma- terials research. We would be pleased if you continued to accompany the INM into the future. Beson- ders interessant sind dabei als Materialien Kohlenstoffnano- zwiebeln und Verfahren wie die Atomlagenabscheidung.
Besondere Be- deutung hat die Charakterisierung elektrochemischer Prozesse, die mit In-situ-Methoden untersucht werden. Our activities focus on electrochem- ical energy storage and water treatment. Carbon materials and nanohybrids are the most important electrode materials, and we utilize non-porous car- bon nanoparticles carbon onions, carbon black and nanoporous carbon materials activated carbons, carbide-derived carbon, polymer-derived carbon, carbon nanofibers to obtain electrodes for electro- chemical applications.
Hybridization of carbon is accomplished by the implementation of nanoscale metal oxides or metal sulfides. We also investigate Faradaic materials, such as two-dimensional tran- sition metal dichalcogenides or carbides MXene.
Redox electrolytes capitalize on the rapid charge transfer when in nanoconfined space. We utilize methods such as chloroxidation of carbides, sulfidation of metal oxides, and atomic layer deposition to accomplish this task. Redox-active electrolytes Redox-active electrolytes allow combining high power with high energy for electrochemical energy storage. The confinement of redox-active ions with- in carbon nanopores enables high charge transfer rates and, for some ions, results in weak chemisorp- tion that makes the use of ion-exchange membranes between the electrode pair obsolete.
Aqueous redox systems capitalize further on the non-flammability for enhanced safety compared to energy storage modules based on organic electrolytes. Our team has also demonstrated that redox-active electrolytes can be used for water desalination with enhanced performance by transferring the enhanced charge storage capacity to an increased ion removal ability.
Faradaic materials for water treatment Capacitive deionization is a rapidly growing technol- ogy for energy-efficient water desalination, usually employing nanoporous carbon electrodes. Our work has shown that unlike capacitive deionization, Faradaic deionization allows the ion-selective desalination at high molar strength, enabling applications such as seawater treatment or mining water remediation.
We specifically focus on high-performance desalination and ion separation in the environmental setting. Digital energy materials In close collaboration with research partners in China and Poland, we support our experimental work by simulation of ion electrosorption processes on the nanoscale. In return, our experimental data feeds back into the simulation work to allow the correla- tion between prediction and actual measurement to develop next-generation electrochemical materials.
In this way, we discovered the surprising permse- lectivity of sub-nanometer carbon pores owed to their ionophobicity. This allows a new approach to membrane-free seawater desalination with ac- tivated carbon.
In addition, we will further explore electroactive interfaces and Faradaic mate- rials for advanced electrochemical desalination. The low energy consumption and excellent performance for the desalination of high salinity media overcome the present-day issues of capacitive deionization and will lead to a new technology field of desalination batteries.
The Program Divi- sion Functional Microstructures conducts experimen- tal and theoretical research on the design, fabrication and characterization of such surfaces by combining suitable morphologies and materials. Inspired by the adhesive performance of natural systems, the group mimics such mechanisms to control the adhesion of synthetic surfaces. To optimize adhesion, the stress distribution in the contact interface is modelled nu- merically and the statistics and interaction of indi- vidual adhesive contacts are investigated.
Another prom- ising new direction is the design of wound adhesives for clinical application. To gain strong adhesives that work both in air and under water, a novel microstructure design has been introduced: Cupped microstructures Fig. In collaboration with Prof.
Walter Federle Univ. Cambridge, UK , design parameters were tested and adhesion mechanisms revealed — in dry conditions the adhesion is mainly based on van-der-Waals interactions, while in wet conditions the suction effect dominates. Wang et al. Interfaces, Skin adhesives Novel skin adhesives could potentially revolutionize wound healing strategies and open new avenues for Campus Prof.
We analyzed their effect on human tactile perception in psychophysical experiments. Nittala et al. New silicone-based adhesives for the treatment of ear drum perforations were developed. Due to the intrinsically low surface free energy of silicone elastomers, functionalization strategies are needed to promote the attachment and spreading of eukaryotic cells. We found that func- tionalization by physical protein adsorption signifi- cantly improves the cellular interaction of fibroblasts interfering with the polymeric surface without in- terfering in the adhesive performance, as analyzed by tack and peel tests.
Boyadzhieva et al. Bernhard Schick and Prof. Gentiana Wenzel Saarland University Clin- ic. The spin-off now commercializes the devel- oped technology and provides new handling solu- tions in cases where the new technology surpasses the state-of-the-art technologies. Among the fundamental aspects to be explored are new designs including mechanical metamaterials to allow new functions and new strategies to switch adhesion.
In addition, in situ observation of the real contact area will help to predict adhesion based on statistical learning algorithms. The potential applica- tions range from medical devices through handling solutions to space applications. We focus on surface functionalization and on understanding the physical chemistry of friction, wear, lubrication, deformation, and adhesion. Ma- terials range from graphene over hydrogels to mi- cro-structured elastomers.
The experimental projects rely on our expertise in the field of high-reso lution force microscopy. Fundamental tribology experi- ments also address larger length scales, in particular in skin friction and its role in the haptic perception of materials. New projects employ single-molecule force spectroscopy in soft matter for biophysical applications. CURRENT RESEARCH The following examples describe research results which led to publications in international research journals: Nanorheology of ionics liquids under elec- trochemical control Ionic liquids are a novel class of lubricants with oil- like viscosity but a number of advantages such as low vapor pressure and electric conductivity.
We have established magnetically activated Dynamic Shear Force Microscopy as a method to study the shear viscosity of ionic liquids in nanometer-sized gaps Fig. We discovered a solidification of the liquid and confirmed generic mechanisms of tuna- ble electrolubricity Fig. Lateral oscilla- tions of tip excited by an external magnetic field.
Liquid solidifies and ions form a cubic crystal when electrifying confining surfaces. Finally, we have summarized our results of six different experimental techniques operating at different length scales and discussed the require- ments — in particular in sample preparation — for successful multi-scale tribology projects.
OUTLOOK We will continue to investigate the mechanisms which link structure and dynamics of surfaces to fric- tion and wear in new materials. Our current projects include atomic-scale friction experiments in stacks of two-dimensional materials such as graphene and MoS2.
Nanomechanical studies of hydrogels are pur- sued in collaboration with the Program Division Dy- namic Biomaterials. We develop novel DNA-based materials with force sensing functions for biophysical applications. Electrochemical processes at the sur- face of metallic glasses are explored at the nanometer scale. Our research on haptic perception of materials will be further developed in collaboration with the Program Division Functional Microstructures, and the Departments of Materials Science, of Psychol- ogy, and of Computer Science at Saarland Univer- sity, with the goal to reveal fundamental pathways of tactile perception through psychophysical exper- iments on micro-structured materials.
Nanomechanics of single crosslinks in hydrogels which mediate cell adhesion In successful collaboration with the Program Divi- sion Dynamic Biomaterials, we studied the nanome- chanics of hydrogels by force spectroscopy of sin- gle crosslinks. When growing cells on hydrogels, the elastic modulus of the substrate is an important parameter for the spreading of cells.
This growth is mediated by protein motifs which are attached to linkers in the hydrogel. We measured the effective stiffness of the same linkers by atomic force micros- copy. The quantification of stiffness and defor- mation at the molecular length scale contributes to the discussion of mechanisms in force-regulated phenomena in cell biology. Alois Schlarb have been presented in a series of publications. We have intro- duced a novel contact mechanics model for repeat- ed single-asperity scratches.
The model takes into account the developing groove and builds a bridge between results of microscopic experiments and macroscopic materials parameters. We compared the effects of frictional and external heating on friction. MISSION Nanoscale characterization is essential for the devel- opment of modern nanotechnology, energy science, biology, and biomedical sciences. The Program Divi- sion Innovative Electron Microscopy IEM conducts in- terdisciplinary research at the interface of physics of electron microscopy, biophysics, materials science, cell biology, and image processing.
The division is world leading in the area of liquid-phase electron microsco- py LP-EM. We develop forefront in situ transmission electron microscopy TEM and scanning TEM STEM methods for the study of functional materials and bio- logical systems at realistic conditions, mostly using a liquid flow system.
We are also exploring new routes for three-dimensional 3D data acquisition using in- telligent STEM- and image reconstruction strategies. In addition, we have extensive experience with image processing, and with developing protocols for specif- ic labeling of proteins with nanoparticles. Various research collaborations exist both with academia, and industry. The relative ratio of the different ORAI channels. This project is conducted together with Prof.
Growth factor receptors in cancer cells We study the growth factor receptor HER2 at the sin- gle-molecule level within whole breast cancer cells in liquid, thereby analyzing differences in protein function between individual cancer cells cancer cell heterogeneity.
This research is done together with Prof. Examining patient biopsy samples with STEM We have started examining long-term response in Trastuzumab treated metastatic gastric- or gastro- esophageal junction cancer patients via molecular HER2 surface and pathway analyses in a project together with Prof. Our role is to expand the application area of LP-EM to image self-assem- bly of soft matter.
The project is in collaboration with Dr. This research is funded by the DFG. Studying the behavior of proteins and nanomaterials in liquid A graphene liquid enclosure has been developed capable of imaging proteins in liquid, and a project funded by an industrial partner has started.
Understanding Autonomous Cooperation and Control in Logistics
Dokument wird geladen. Neues Denken. Neue Materialien. Robert M. Wie geht es weiter?
BETRIEBSTECHNIK MANZ PDF
Speeding up CIGS solar cell manufacture
Photo: HZB. The CIGS thin film photovoltaics can be integrated pleasingly into building architectures. Photo: Manz AG. The project partners will use this money to accelerate the manufacturing process for CIGS thin-film solar cells and thus make the technology more attractive to industry. The acquired funding will go towards optimising a co-evaporation process at PVcomB used for producing CIGS layers for thin-film solar cells.