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Industrial Animas, Xalapa, C. Knowledge related to the genetic improvement of quinoa has been increasing in recent years, demonstrating an effective advance in obtaining morphological characteristics meant to achieve uniformity in the quantity and quality of the production obtained in the field. For this research, quinoa flour harvested in Mexico and Chile, the latter of which was genetically improved, was obtained and characterized.
Next, the determination of moisture, fats, fiber, carbohydrates, acidity, ash, proteins, polyphenols, and flavonoids was performed. Functional properties were also evaluated, and a microbiological count was made.
No differences were observed in the odor and color of the flours, nor was there a change in moisture during 6 months of storage. The initial percentages of acidity, fats, proteins and ashes were higher in Chilean flour 2.
Regarding raw fiber and carbohydrates, the results obtained were lower for Chilean flour 2. The content of flavonoids and polyphenols in Chilean flour were higher than those of Mexico. The results obtained reveal that the nutritional content of Chilean quinoa flour was better than that of Mexico. The growth of molds and yeasts was observed in the 6th month for the Mexican flour; however, the values did not exceed the limits of the OMN Official Mexican Norm No se observaron diferencias en el olor y el color de las harinas, ni hubo un cambio en la humedad durante 6 meses de almacenamiento.
Con respecto a la fibra cruda y los carbohidratos, los resultados obtenidos fueron menores para la harina chilena 2. The nutritional value of quinoa has been basically recognized by its high quality protein FAO, ; it is particularly rich in essential amino acids and carbohydrates, producing low glycemic indexes, and has a better nutrimental and functional quality in general compared to cereal grains such as corn, oats, wheat and rice Romo et al. Recent studies show the nutritional richness of quinoa both in absolute terms and in comparison with other basic foods; in these studies, it is generally emphasized that quinoa proteins contain a balance of all the essential amino acids Fuentes, The biochemical analyses also show an adequate presence of vitamins, especially A, B and C, which are a fundamental part of a healthy diet.
In addition, quinoa does not contain gluten Arroyave, This grain is characterized not only by the nutritional quality it provides but also by the content of phenolic compounds that it gives to the diet Taylor et al. Recently, quinoa has been considered a potential native resource not only of Andean countries but also of other countries, given their interest in protein of high nutritional value, especially in regard to recently popularized diets, such as vegetarianism and veganism, in which quinoa can be included as a substitute for meat.
In addition, quinoa presents advantages in its sugar composition. In the present work, quinoa flour from Mexico and Chile was obtained and characterized, with the differences in nutrient content determined for both newly obtained quinoa and quinoa after six months of storage. One kilogram washed and cleaned quinoa was used to obtain each of the flours. The washed and dried grains were ground for 10 min in a commercial brand blender Osterizer, Milwauke, Wisconsin, USA and subsequently sieved in a mesh screen.
The obtained flours were packed in laminated plastic bags and vacuum sealed with a sealing machine Oster, Milwauke, Wisconsin, USA after having been assigned a key for the analyses to follow in 6 months, and were stored at room temperature.
Two melting pots, kept at a constant weight for 2 h, were placed on a stove, then 1 g test material was placed in each melting pot, which were then placed back on the stove for approximately 4 h; the material was returned to the melting pot to cool, and finally, the material was weighed for the first time to determine the percentage of moisture Nielsen, The fat content of the samples was determined through the official A.
S Ab method of Soxhlet. Raw fiber was determined by the official AOAC method, which consisted of submitting the dry and defatted sample first to acid hydrolysis and then to alkaline hydrolysis. The fiber content of the sample was gravimetrically calculated once it was calcined. A solution was made by adding 1 mg test sample to 10 mL distilled water; a total of six tubes were prepared and in each tube was added: 1 mL test aqueous solution, 0. Thirty minutes later, the absorbance was determined at nm.
The absorbance of the samples was determined. The standard curve was generated with glucose, which was also treated in the same way as the test material NMX-F The method was performed as previously described in NMX-F, with modifications. First, 25 mL solution A was measured along with 25 mL solution B, which were placed in a mL Erlenmeyer flask attached to a universal support with a gauged burette.
The flask was then placed under a boiler flask for titration. The solution was left until it boiled and started to be titrated dropwise; during the first color change, the titration was stopped, and 0. When the solution came to a boil, titration was repeated, resulting in an orange copper color due to the formation of cuprous acid. The same procedure was performed for the test with l g quinoa flour in mL distilled water.
Later, 2 mL was allocated to each tube before adding 2 mL sodium sulfate plus 8 mL Biuret. This was solution was then incubated in the dark for 30 min, after which absorbance at nm was determined. For the quantification, a standard curve was generated using bovine albumin.
In a melting pot with constant weight, 3 g test material was burned in a direct fire until ash was formed without emitting smoke. The determination of polyphenols was performed in triplicate for every experiment using the Folin Ciocalteu method. Gallic acid was used as a standard to generate a standard curve, starting with a phenol solution with a concentration 50 mg mL This was then injected at a flux of 0. Between every test injection, the column was rebalanced for a minimum of 10 minutes to eliminate the residual effects of the mixture caused by acetic acid Skoog and Leary, Calibration curves were made for the following standards: gallic acid Sigma Aldrich , catechin Sigma Aldrich , rutin Sigma Aldrich , morin Fluka Analytical and kaempferol Sigma Aldrich.
To validate the method, standardized and experimental tests were performed to determine the precision, selectivity, limit of detection, limits of quantification and linearity.
To determine water retention capacity WRC , one gram flour was weighed and dispersed in 30 mL 2. The pH was adjusted to 7. A 10 g aliquot of the suspension was taken and centrifuged Hettich, Micro R, Germany at rpm for 15 min. To determine the emulsifying capacity EC , 6. The pH was adjusted to a range of 6. Total coliforms, aerobic bacteria and molds and yeasts were determined in the flour samples at the beginning and during the storage time in order to determine the safety of the flours according to the Official Mexican Norm.
Figure 1 shows the newly obtained quinoa flours from Mexico and Chile initially and after storage; as no apparent changes in the color and odor of the flours were observed, we conclude that the use of metalized packaging helped. Table 1 shows the results obtained for the different analytical determinations on the first day and during storage. The fat percentage in the quinoa from Chile presented a value significantly higher than the quinoa from Mexico Table 1.
The fat content depends on the genetic material, the state of maturity, soil fertility and climatic factors Fuentes, According to the data reported by Romo et al. The importance of fiber content in foods is that it facilitates digestive transit, producing a feeling of fullness in addition to regulating cholesterol levels and stimulating the development of bacterial flora FAO, No significant differences were observed between the ash values of the quinoa flours Table 1.
The percentage of ash implies the presence of individual constituents: chlorides, phosphates, calcium and iron. Table 1 also shows the protein results obtained for quinoa flours; the values obtained were significantly higher for Chile than for Mexico. The importance of quinoa proteins lies in their quality FAO, ; these quinoa seed proteins can also be affected by their geographic location and existing genotypes Fuentes and Paredes-Gonzalez, Additionally, in recent studies, it has been reported Aguilera, that thermal treatments can affect quinoa protein content; however, in this work, even when the grains were subjected to a drying process, no significant decrease in their protein contents were observed.
The importance of fiber content in food is that it facilitates digestive transit, produces a feeling of fullness, regulates cholesterol levels and stimulates the development of bacterial flora FAO, In addition, the general percentage of fiber gives quinoa seeds better aptitude for obese or overweight individuals.
Genetic differences, developmental defense mechanisms, environmental differences in soils, and the use of chemical fertilizers may be factors affecting quinoa fiber content Miranda et al. The percentages of carbohydrates obtained are shown in Table 1. Significant differences were observed in the contents; however, carbohydrates remain the major component of quinoa. Carbohydrates are one of the largest groups of organic compounds found in nature, and together with proteins they form the main components of living organisms.
Carbohydrates are an abundant and economical source of energy for human beings, and also provide different physiological effects on health, such as: energy supply, satiety effects, gastric emptying, blood glucose control and insulin metabolism, protein glycosylation, and metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides Maradini, et al.
The polyphenols present in the quinoa of Chile Table 2 were significantly higher than those present in the flour from Mexico; this is considered positive for this type of product, since currently the presence of polyphenols is associated with antioxidant activity Techeira et al. Phenolic compounds or polyphenols constitute a wide group of chemical substances, are considered secondary metabolites of plants, and have different chemical structures and activities. Many of the benefits of foods of vegetable origin are associated predominantly with antioxidant activity; their protective role in cardiovascular diseases and cancer as well as in aging processes are related to the presence and content of this group of compounds Padron, et al.
The flavonoid content was significantly higher in Chilean than in Mexican flour Table 2 , especially for catechin and routine values; the values of gallic acid were similar to those reported for other varieties of quinoa.
Many health benefits of flavonoids have recently been reported due to their antioxidant capacity provided by their chemical structure, and they can be used to treat diseases related to inflammatory processes and cardiovascular disorders.
Additionally, their hepatoprotective activity has been documented, including antiallergic, anticarcinogenic, and antibacterial activities, among others Repo-Carrasco and Encina, In terms of water retention capacity WRC , similar results were obtained for the two flours in this study Table 3 and for Delgado and Albarracin in 5. In the processes of mass formation, it is considered that the functional property of flours, related to water absorption capacity, tends to be one of the most important physicochemical properties of carbohydrates, since it is related to the degree of intermolecular association between starchy polymers.
This feature contributes to the maintenance of moisture in some foods, as in the case of bakery and pastry products, as they can form a superficial layer that limits water loss Aguilera, Water solubility and water absorption are parameters show the magnitude of the interaction between the starch chains within amorphous and crystalline sections.
The morphology, processing and composition of flours affect their functional properties, as do the contents of fats and proteins. In the present work, the highest fat and protein contents were found in the flour from Chile. The emulsifying capacities obtained from the quinoa flours Table 3 were lower than those presented by Delgado and Albarracin in This capacity is a property sensitive to heat treatment, as has been observed in dehydrated legume flours Aguilera, Microbiological analyses of the quinoa flours were negative during the six months of storage, demonstrating that the packaging used was adequate to maintain safety control in the two types of flour, thus complying with the minimum established in the NOM.
The most abundant compounds, catechins and rutin, did not show significant differences in values during the six months of storage. No growth of any type of microorganism was observed in the flours during storage. The results of the functional analyses were similar for both flours, so they represent an excellent option to partially or totally replace wheat; as an additional benefit, they do not contain gluten.
Abugoch, L. Quinoa Chenopodium quinoa Willd. USA: Elservier Inc. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research — Aguilera, Y. Facultad de Ciencias. Arroyave, L. Universidad de la Calle.
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Se formularon diez tratamientos, los cuales estuvieron compuestos por 3 ingredientes individuales, 3 mezclas binarias y 4 mezclas ternarias. The aim of this research was to evaluate the interaction effects of quinoa, kiwicha and tarwi flours in pasting properties peak viscosity, VP; trough viscosity, VM; setback viscosity, VR; final viscosity, VF and textural properties firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, viscosity index of the gels formed in an aqueous system using the experimental approach of mixture design. Ten treatments were formulated, which were composed of 3 individual ingredients, 3 binary mixtures, and 4 ternary mixtures. The results of this research show that the high-water absorption capacity and absence of starch from the tarwi flour significantly affected the viscosity parameters of the pastes, as well as the textural properties of the gels. Due to the special rheological and textural characteristics that the mixtures between quinoa with tarwi or kiwicha with tarwi could have, they would be promising for the development of gluten-free bread products.
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Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: The aim of this review was to detail the nutritional and antioxidant properties of canihua Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen. Canihua is one of the least studied Andean grains, but it s one of their highest in protein quality and content. This plant is grown in extreme weather conditions, such as in the altiplano m , it has probably developed a natural protection against oxidation. View PDF.