His books deal with the integration of scientific and archaeological discoveries with the biblical account, early Israelite beliefs, a survey of Israelite cult, and how and where the Israelites originated. Israel Knohl was born Giv'at Aliyah , Israel. For his graduate work he switched to the Bible Department and completed his PhD in under the supervision of Moshe Greenberg , with a dissertation on the relationship between the Pentateuchal Priestly source and the Holiness code. Knohl lives in Jerusalem and is the father of the three children. Following a postdoctoral fellowship at Princeton he joined the faculty of the Bible Department at Hebrew University, where he served as the Chair of the Department from Knohl identifies as a religious Jew and claims that biblical criticism is not necessarily at odds with traditional Jewish beliefs.
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His books deal with the integration of scientific and archaeological discoveries with the biblical account, early Israelite beliefs, a survey of Israelite cult, and how and where the Israelites originated. Israel Knohl was born Giv'at Aliyah , Israel. For his graduate work he switched to the Bible Department and completed his PhD in under the supervision of Moshe Greenberg , with a dissertation on the relationship between the Pentateuchal Priestly source and the Holiness code.
Knohl lives in Jerusalem and is the father of the three children. Following a postdoctoral fellowship at Princeton he joined the faculty of the Bible Department at Hebrew University, where he served as the Chair of the Department from Knohl identifies as a religious Jew and claims that biblical criticism is not necessarily at odds with traditional Jewish beliefs. He points out that the view that the Pentateuch was composed by multiple authors is supported by a number of Jewish authors, beginning in the Bible itself, and culminating with Abraham ibn Ezra and Hasidei Ashkenaz.
Knohl's first book, The Sanctuary of Silence, was originally published in Hebrew. Based on his doctoral dissertation, relates to his theories about the dating of the Priestly source. Knohl proposes that the Priestly source P dates from a much earlier period than is usually assumed and that the Holiness code H represents an addition to the law code of P, rather than the standard interpretation which is the reverse.
Knohl suggests that H might have been inserted into P as a response of the Temple priesthood to the growing prophetic movements. Knohl is best known for his theory that Jewish culture contained a myth about a messiah who rose from the dead in the days before Jesus of Nazareth.
In his book Where are We From? Knohl presents his theory of Israelite beginnings. According to the subtitle the purpose of the book is to crack the genetic code of the Hebrew Bible, or more specifically to address questions regarding the genesis of the Jewish people, the root of its belief system, and how its laws and traditions originated. Knohl bases himself on archaeological evidence and a critical reading of the biblical text.
He claims that the Israelites became a nation in the 12th century BCE through the intertwining of three ethnically related groups, and that the Bible represents an integration of the beliefs of these groups. The first group is the Hyksos , who were originally Canaanite slaves who then assimilated into the Egyptian population and ruled the country for years beginning in BCE.
This group was banished from Egypt in the 15th century BCE after the fall of their dynasty. One also finds abnormal descriptions of climate, such as the Nile turning into blood, in Egyptian sources such as the Ipuwer Papyrus. The myth of Abraham and his journey to Canaan originated, according to Knohl, with a group that immigrated from Mitanni following the fall of this kingdom at the hands of Shalmaneser I. A third group were slaves that escaped from Egypt and they were responsible for perpetuating the myth of Israelite slavery in Egypt, the construction of the cities Pithom and Ramses, and the experience of running away from Egypt.
According to Knohl it was this group of escaped slaves that brought with them the idea of monotheism , which was conceived by Pharaoh Akhenaten. On their way to Canaan the Apiru passed through Midian and accepted Yahweh as the name of their God, as well as the tradition of not representing God through images or statues.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Israel Knohl. Retrieved Leviticus The Origins of Jewish Mysticism. Princeton University Press. Retrieved 28 July Categories : births Living people 20th-century Jewish biblical scholars 21st-century Jewish biblical scholars Documentary hypothesis Hebrew University of Jerusalem alumni Hebrew University of Jerusalem faculty Historians of Jews and Judaism Israeli historians Jewish biblical scholars.
In a work that challenges notions that have dominated New Testament scholarship for more than a hundred years, Israel Knohl gives startling evidence for a messianic precursor to Jesus who is described as the "Suffering Servant" in recently published fragments of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Messiah before Jesus clarifies many formerly incomprehensible aspects of Jesus' life and confirms the story in the New Testament about his messianic awareness. The book shows that, around the time of Jesus' birth, there came into being a conception of "catastrophic" messianism in which the suffering, humiliation, and death of the messiah were regarded as an integral part of the redemptive process. Scholars have long argued that Jesus could not have foreseen his suffering, death, and resurrection because the concept of a slain savior who rises from the dead was alien to the Judaism of his time. But, on the basis of hymns found at Qumran among the Dead Sea Scrolls, Knohl argues that, one generation before Jesus, a messianic leader arose in the Qumran sect who was regarded by his followers as ushering in an era of redemption and forgiveness. This messianic leader was killed by Roman soldiers in the course of a revolt that broke out in Jerusalem in 4 B.
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He holds a Ph. During the reign of Pharaoh Siptah, Egypt had a powerful vizier from the Levant named Baya, who dominated even the Pharaoh. Archaeological records and climatological studies show that this was right in the middle of a lengthy famine that effected the entire Mediterranean. Several biblical passages imply that God was ritually enthroned as king during the new year celebrations. In the Torah itself, however, this is suppressed.