Thevar people Thevar literally meaning "Aristocrats" in Sanskrit collectively forms the Mukkulathor meaning: people of the three clans. Kings are addressed as Thevars during the Chola and Pandyian dynasty some constitute as vikings and warriors of Tamilakkam. Kallars and Maravars were inhabitants of the Palai region during the Sangam period. The literature during the Sangam period divided the regions based on climate and topography. Palai was mainly a desert-like region with little to no rain.
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Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Get Started. Kallar The Caste who makes the History of Tamilnadu. Kallar Home Muthuramalingam Thevar P.
Manicham V. Muthuramalingam Thevar. He hailed from the Maravar community, the dominant warrior caste group in his home district in southern Tamil Nadu. Thevar became the leader of the All India Forward Bloc in Tamil Nadu, and was national deputy chairman of the party from onwards. He was elected thrice to parliament. Childhood and family life Thevar was born in the village of Pasumpon, Ramnad district.
He hailed from a wealthy landlord family. Thevar was the only son of Ukkirapandi Thevar and Indirani. He had one sister, Janaki. His mother died before his first birthday and his stepmother the next year.
From onwards he was in the custody of his maternal grandmother Parvathiammal in the neighbouring village of Kallupatti. Parvathiammal was furious on Thevar's father for having taken two new wives shortly after the death of his second wife. During his youth, Thevar was aided by Kuzhanthaisami Pillai. Pillai was a close family friend of Thevar's father. Pillai took responsibility for arranging Thevar's schooling. First he was given private tuition and in June he began attending classes at an elementary school run by American missionaries in Kamuthi.
Thevar would however, not complete his studies. In he missed his final examinations due to an outbreak of a plague epidemic. The following year he also missed his chance to attend the final examinations, as he returned to Pasumpon to fight a legal battle over issues of inheritance of family property.
The case would linger and was not settled until , when the court ruling in Muthuramalingam Thevar's favour. Since the Criminal Tribes Act had been enacted by the government of the Madras Presidency and began to be implemented in the Madurai, Ramnad and Tirunelveli districts.
After his entry into politics, Thevar began to mobilize resistance to the CTA. He toured villages in the affected areas and led protest rallies for the rights of the individuals registered under the CTA.
Thevar led a massive campaign in the villages, urging the people to defy the CTA. The authorities partially withdrew, and reduced the number of CTA registrations in the concerned areas from around to just A committee consisting of Thevar, Dr. Varadarajulu Naidu, Perumal Thevar, Sasivarna Thevar and Navaneethakrishna Thevar was appointed by the convention to carry on the efforts to persuade the government to revoke the Act.
The CTA was, however, not revoked. On the contrary, its implementation was widened. Thevar again led agitations and awareness-raising campaigns against the Act. At the time the Justice Party was governing the Madras presidency, and their refusal to revoke the law created a strong animosity on Thevar's behalf towards the Justicites.
After returning from a trip to Burma in , he began to work to strengthen the Congress in the southern areas of the Presidency. He contested the election to the Ramnad District Board from the Muthukulathur constituency, defeating his Justice Party opponent. This was Thevar's first experience of being a candidate in an election. After the election Thevar made a bid to be elected the president of the District Board.
So did P. Kumarasamy, the Raja of Rajapalyam. Conflict erupted within the local Congress organisation over the issue. Satyamurthi, on behalf of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee, intervened to preserve the unity of the Congress. Thevar was convinced to withdraw his candidature for president, and presented a motion nominating Kumarasamy as president. His activities created worries for the Justice Party government, which forbade him to travel outside of the Ramnad district and to make speeches in public.
In February Thevar contested the assembly election himself, as a candidate in the Ramathapuram constituency. He had a powerful opponent, the Raja of Ramnad. However, Thevar won a landslide victory with 11 votes against 6 for the Raja. Following the election the Congress formed a government in the Presidency. Thevar had high hopes that the new Congress ministry would revoke the Criminal Tribes Act. But the new Chief minister, C. Rajagopalachari, did not fulfil those hopes.
As a trade unionist During the late s, Thevar got increasingly involved in labour activities. During a prolonged strike of the Pasumalai Mahalaskshmi Mill Workers' Union, demanding the reinstatement of a section of fired trade unionists, Thevar was jailed for seven months from October 15, In the end, the management of the Mahalakshmi Mills accepted the demands of the union.
In the same period a strike was led by Thevar at the Madura Knitting Company. Tripuri session of the Congress and formation of the Forward Bloc Thevar attended the 52nd annual session of the Indian National Congress, held in Tripuri in March Sitaramayya had the active support of Gandhi. Bose was re-elected as the Congress President. Thevar strongly supported Bose in the intra-Congress dispute. Thevar mobilised all south India votes for Bose. However, due to the manoeuvrings of the Gandhi-led clique in the Congress Working Committee, Bose found himself forced to resign from the Congress Presidency.
He then launched the Forward Bloc on June 22, calling for the unification of all leftwing elements into a united organisation within the Congress. Thevar, who was disillusioned by the official Congress leadership which had not revoked the CTA, joined the Forward Bloc. When Bose visited Madurai on September 6, Thevar organised a massive rally as his reception.
In jail The growing popularity in Thevar as a leader of elements opposing the official Congress leadership in Tamil Nadu troubled the Congress-led government.
Thevar was also increasingly associated with labour militancy. A criminal case, the so-called Madura Security Case, was proceeded against him.
He was banned from leaving Madurai. When travelling to his birthplace, Pasumpon, in September he was apprehended and jailed for 18 months at the Central Jail in Tiruchirapalli.
His capture sparked wide condemnation in Tamil Nadu. Soon after his release he was again arrest, now under the Defence of India Rules. He was released from prison only on September 5, After release from jail In C. Rajagopalachari tried to make a comeback within the Congress organisation in Tamil Nadu. A conference was held in Tirupparankundram, in which the leadership should be elected. Chaos broke about during the conference, as warring factions confronted each other. Elections to the assembly of the Madras Presidency were again held in March Thevar contested from the Mudukulathur constituency, and was elected unopposed.
Soon thereafter, the CTA was repealed. In February the Congress expelled all dissenting fractions, including the Forward Bloc. The Forward Bloc became an independent opposition party, and Thevar became its president of its Tamil Nadu state unit a position he would hold for the rest of his life. On January 23, , in connection with birthday anniversary celebrations of Subhas Chandra Bose, Thevar publicly announced that Bose was alive and that he had met him.
Soon thereafter Thevar disappeared without any explanation. He returned to public life in October Rumours claimed that he had travelled to Korea and China during this period. On the national level the Forward Bloc had been suffering from internal ideological divisions. On June 23, , the two parties reunified at a meeting in Calcutta.
A central committee was announced for the united party, which included Thevar as one of its members. The Forward Bloc contested with the aim of forming non-Congress governments at the Centre as well as in the states. Election were held simultaneously to the Lok Sabha as well as to the legislative assemblies of the states. Thevar contested the Aruppukottai constituency in the Lok Sabha election and the Mudukulathur constituency in the assembly election. He won in both cases.
After the election, he decided to vacate his Lok Sabha seat and concentrate his efforts to the Madras legislative assembly. After the election, Congress lacked a majority of its own in the Madras legislative assembly. Thevar cooperated with the communists in trying to form a non-Congress governing coalition.
However, the governor intervened and made C. Rajagopalachari of the Congress the Chief Minister. This proposal did however not win much support in other sections of the party leadership.
Tamilar History (தமிழர் வரலாறு)
A couple of years ago, a year-old from Kalappanpatti village in Madurai was picked up by the local police. His father, Mayandi name changed , was told that the young man was detained on suspicion of robbing a couple of their jewellery while they were returning to the village after attending a marriage ceremony in the town. There were many others who were coming back to the village, but the police picked up only my son. When asked about it, they [the police] called us names and said only Kallars would rob people. Back in , one April morning, hundreds of Kallars had gathered at Kathandamman temple near Perungamanallur village in Madurai to resist the inhuman Criminal Tribes Act brought in by the British. Anticipating the resistance, the colonial administration had posted a battalion of police force armed with guns.
Kallars are paying the price for a century-old crime that was never committed
The Thevar surname is used by Maravar clan members. It is also used by certain Agamudayar and Kallar clan members. Kallars, Maravars and Agamudayars are combinedly referred to as the Mukkulathor caste. They speak Tamil. It is believed that the surname Thevar was given to the Maravars by Lord Rama. The Maravars were native warlike clan and they fought alongside Lord Rama against Ravana. The kings of Sivagangai, Ramanathapuram and Tirunelveli are Maravars.