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Inspired by them, the elites started to collect Middle Eastern artefacts which today form the core of many European artistic and archaeological collections. Almost all Central European countries or their parts belonged in the 19th century to the Austrian Empire later Austria-Hungary that had strategic political as well as economic interests in the Eastern Mediterranean and was an immediate neighbour to the Ottoman Empire, the suzerain of the region.
The present proceedings are the achievements of the conference entitled The Perception of the Orient in Central Europe — that sought to examine the cultural, political, economic and social relationships and interconnections of Central Europe with the Orient especially Egypt during the 19th century, up to the end of the First World War, and to study the legacy of Egyptomania and Orientalism in this region.
With a special reference to the conference venue, the attention was given to travelling and collecting activities of the nobility from the countries of the former Austria-Hungary that gave rise to libraries, artistic and archaeological collections and also common knowledge about the Oriental world.
The conference was organised by the Aigyptos Foundation in cooperation with the Betliar Museum a branch of the Slovak National Museum and under the auspices of the Egypt and Austria Society. The house preserves one of the most important historical collections in Slovakia, including a unique historical library from the end of the 18th century with more than 15 publications as well as a small collection of artefacts from ancient Egypt.
The meetings of the research group Egypt and Austria have been organised annually since and are already well-established. The shared history demands networking and collaboration in order to set up local, regional but also supra-regional observations relating to our understanding and perception of the Middle East and also to the formation of this understanding in the 19th century. These aspects were of the same importance in the past.
This entanglement of individual stories with that of the others is also symptomatic of the present proceedings. A detailed account of the Egyptian public collections in Croatia and their former owners is provided by Mladen Tomorad.
On display at Vienna, even if several decades later, were also some paintings by the famous Oriental Marinist Diyarbakirli Tahsin, a Turk who had an Austrian wife. Travels and travelogues related to the Middle East are equally addressed in the present proceedings. The reasons behind these undertakings are manifold. In conclusion, the editors would like to raise all those who contributed to the realisation of the ninth Egypt and Austria meeting. The editors owe a great deal of gratitude to all institutions and individuals mentioned above who made the conference an extraordinary event.
Most of these artefacts are to be found in archaeological museums — ca. The ancient Egyptian antiquities in the Croatian institutional and private collections consist of: 1 material acquired from abroad through intermediaries or donations, and 2 material associated with ancient Egyptian cults from various provinces of the Roman Empire.
Such artefacts were acquired by Croatian museums or private collectors mostly through archaeological excavations, or in some cases by purchase. The material from the latter category presented problems, especially in the second half of the 19th century when they were commonly considered to be fakes. Fortunately, recently it has been mostly established that such artefacts originated in ancient Rome, and now these antiquities are considered to be genuine.
Their number is still not known. It is necessary to establish how many artefacts are kept in regional museums and to determine their origin, authenticity, date, and cultural and historical value. It is often very hard to say as well how these artefacts found their way to these institutions, mostly because valuable documentation about the purchase, donations or excavations has not survived.
The private collections form a special group. Their origin and the number of the artefacts stored in such collections is uncertain and mostly unknown. Unfortunately, the names of these early explorers and collectors are not preserved in any sources.
This is the main reason why we can name only those who collected such artefacts in the early 19th century. He came from a wealthy Bohemian family which had enough funds to educate him in Kosmanosy and Prague.
He started his military career in He died during his diplomatic service in Naples in Tomek examined the collection ca. Tomek from Prague, 28th—29th April , pp. Sadly, the provenance of the artefacts is mostly unknown. Today, the collection of the Ancient Egyptian Department of the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb includes approximately artefacts.
In the Ancient Department, a small number of artefacts, mostly related to the dissemination of the ancient Egyptian cults Isis, Serapis, Harpocrates, etc. At present, these artefacts are probably the most important exhibits in the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb and are known as Liber linteus Zagrabiensis and the Mummy of Nesi-hensu Inv.
During the second half of the 19th century, the ancient Egyptian collections of the National Museum in Zagreb and the Museum of Slavonia in Osijek32 were enlarged by various smaller donations or purchases. These artefacts had mostly been collected by wealthy citizens, nobles, priests and bishops, teachers and professors, etc.
Table 2. Some of them had travelled to Egypt where they had probably bought them e. Very few data have survived about how the members of this family had come to the possession of these artefacts. The only certain reference mentioned that one of the family members had stayed in Egypt during his diplomatic service. The best known among them is the Lanza family from Split, and the Marchi and Machiedo families from Hvar. In Dubrovnik, we only know about the existence of several collectors Tonko Kuraica, Ivo Nordelli , who probably travelled to Egypt in the second half of the 19th century.
The brothers Frane Dubrovnik, —? He donated a large collection of archaeological artefacts, gathered over a long period of time during his stay in Cairo, to the Municipal Museum of Dubrovnik in Together with his brothers Ignat, Nikola and Antun, he was a founding member of the museum, to which the Amerling family had donated many other artefacts gathered from around the world. Nikola Niko Amerling lived in Alexandria from onwards, and he left Egypt after the British occupation in According to the records in the inventory book, all these artefacts originate from Egypt, and the only recorded year of a donation is Unfortunately, the precise data have not been preserved, so the genesis of the collection remains unknown.
Along with the antiquities, brothers Amerling also donated very valuable photographs, taken by the famous Italian photograph Antonio Beato ca. Tomorad, forthcoming. Kameni spomenici hrvatskog narodnoga muzeja u Zagrebu.
Cambi, Nenad. Pula, 18— Osijek, 49— Osijek, 65— Giunio, Kornelia. Egyptian Gods on the Eastern Adriatic Coast. In: Aegyptus et Pannonia 1 — Acta Symposii anno , ed. Budapest, 21— Gorenc, Marcel. Pula, 5— Sbirke Narodnoga zemaljskoga muzeja, I.
Kollerova egjipatska sbirka. Viestnik narodnoga zemaljskoga muzeja u Zagrebu I, 30— Egipatska sbirka. Napisani povoji jedne mumije u narodnom muzeju u Zagrebu. Viestnik narodnoga zemaljskoga muzeja u Zagrebu XIV—2, 59— Menalo, Romana. Zagreb, — Monnet Saleh, Janine. The dawn of glassmaking. Egipatski skarabeji. XV, Egipatska zbirka. Izbor iz fundusa, ed. Selem, Petar.
Egipatski bogovi u rimskom Iliriku. Les religions Orientales dans la Pannonie Romaine: partie en Yougoslavie. Izidin trag. Historijski zbornik 53, 1— Egipat u Hrvatskoj. Meridijani 77, 54— Shabtis from Roman Provinces Dalmatia and Pannonia. Journal of Egyptological Studies 1, 89— The Egyptian antiquities in Croatia.
PalArch, 2. Dissertation thesis.
Egipatska religija i antička Istra
Smatrali su ih gospodarima sveta. Verovali su u hiljade bogova. Tako je bilo uvek, osim tokom razdoblja Amarne. Za vreme invazija Grka , Thoth je povezivan sa Hermesom.