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Such sermons occur regularly, as prescribed by the teachings of all legal schools. The Islamic tradition can be formally observed at the dhuhr noon congregation prayer on Friday. In addition, similar sermons are called for on the two festival days and after Solar and Lunar Eclipse prayer. Religious narration including sermons may be pronounced in a variety of settings and at various times. The khutbah , however, refers to khutbat al-jum'a , usually meaning the address delivered in the mosque at weekly usually Friday and annual rituals.
Other religious oratory and occasions of preaching are described as dars a lesson or waz an admonition , and their formats differ accordingly. The khutbah originates from the practice of the Islamic prophet , Muhammad , who used to deliver words of exhortation, instruction, or command at gatherings for worship in the mosque , which consisted of the courtyard of his house in Medina.
After the conquest of Mecca , Muhammad presented himself as a khatib to the city in AD The first four caliphs , and the Ummayads caliphs and provincial governors all delivered sermons. There were not necessarily exhortatory, but addressed practical questions of government and sometimes even included direct orders.
Under the Abbasids, the caliph himself no longer preached, but assigned the task to the religious judges. The Abbasids insisted they were clearing Islam of the secularism of the Umayads, and this probably helped in strengthening the religious aspect of the sermon. At the beginning of the service the adhan is given, during which the khatib the individual who delivers the khutbah remains sitting. The iqama is given when the khatib descends.
The sermon is delivered in two parts. Both parts are delivered while khatib is standing and punctuated by a pause in between them when the khatib sits down. During the sermon itself, it is obligatory to pronounce the following: . The khatib must be in a state of ritual purity ; his dress must be in accord with the prescriptions. It is commendable for the khatib to be on a pulpit or an elevated place; to salute the congregation when directing himself towards them; to sit down until the adhan is pronounced by the muezzin ; and to direct himself straightway to his audience.
Finally the khatib should make the sermon short. In medieval Islam , sermons were generally delivered in classical Arabic. This linguistic requirement that required substantial training on the part of the khatib , and a notable degree of education on the part of listeners, especially non-Arab Muslims.
This expectation contributed to the growth of a literary genre consisting of model sermons, such as those by the renowned ibn Nubata d. Later on, however, preaching in colloquial languages, while often retaining certain Arabic expressions, has become increasingly common. One of the conditions for the validity of the Friday service is that it must be preceded by two sermons.
Traditionally, as instructed in classical Islamic legal treatises, Friday congregational prayers in which sermons were delivered were restricted to urban centers and normally to one major mosque in each city. These mosques were distinguished by their central location, large dimensions, monumental architecture, symbolic furnishings indicative of its exalted stature, and, the most demonstrative of all, the minbar ritual pulpit.
In contemporary times, Friday congregational prayers with sermons are common in mosques of all sizes and conditions, and not just restricted to a few central locations.
Sermons on special occasions generally contain features that are relevant to the celebrations e. Eid or the natural phenomena for which they are delivered e. Kusuf and Khusuf. For instance, on Eid al-Fitr , the preacher has a duty to instruct the faithful congregation concerning the zakat , or almsgiving. On Eid al-Adha the preacher includes remarks specifying the rules for the sacrifice. There is a slight difference in the sermon delivered on Eid ul-Fitr. The sermon's first part must open with nine takbirs , the second part with seven.
The sermon may also be pronounced while sitting. Regarding the sermons delivered during an eclipse or excessive drought, classical texts advise that such sermons must admonish the audience and ask God's forgiveness. In the pre-modern Middle East , the mention of a ruler's name in the sermon was one of the two prerogatives of sovereignty the other being the right to mint coins. Mentioning meant accepting the sovereignty and suzerainty of a ruler, and it was considered the principal criterion of sovereignty for an Islamic ruler.
This prerogative of sovereignty was introduced by Islam. It was not present in the pre-Islamic era. In addition, the sermon, a major vehicle of communication, also announced the deposition of a ruler, the accession of a ruler, nomination of an heir , and the beginning and end of a war. Currently, some Muslim monarchies practise this in their state-regulated sermon like in Brunei and Malaysia. In Egypt a similar proposal is currently being discussed.
Also referred to by the same name as the sermon, this concept was different. Its primary purpose was not to admonish, instruct or reprove, but rather to exalt and praise God. It invited others to worship and celebrate God's greatness. Ibn al-Jawzi employed a variety of metaphors and alluded to nature frequently.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of Islamic sermon. Texts and sciences. Denominations and branches. Culture and society. Related topics. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The forgotten queens of Islam [Nachdr.
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Elias and Denison Ross ed. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. Retrieved 29 December The Star Online. Salah Islamic prayer. Salat al-Janazah prayers for the absent Eid prayers according to some Islamic scholars.
Jumu'ah Tarawih Eid prayers. Salat al-Istikharah Eid prayers Tarawih Ramadan. Authority control GND : Hidden categories: CS1 maint: others CS1 Malay-language sources ms Use American English from February All Wikipedia articles written in American English Articles with short description Articles containing Arabic-language text Articles containing Turkish-language text Articles needing additional references from December All articles needing additional references Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January Commons category link is on Wikidata Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers.
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