Establishment of propagation methods for growing promising aromatic plant species of the Lippia Verbenaceae and Tagetes Asteraceae genera in Colombia. The objective of this study was to evaluate methods of asexual propagation with stem cuttings in the aromatic plant species Lippia origanoides accessions CA and CA , Lippia alba accession CA and Tagetes zypaquirensis accession CA and determine the germination behavior of Tagetes caracasana accession CA , in order to contribute to the establishment of these promising aromatics as potential new crops in Colombia. In general, the accessions CA, CA, CA and CA showed better rooting percentage, root length, number of roots and root dry weight in the fine coconut fiber substrate and a higher number of roots with an exogenous application of 2, mg L -1 IBA. The latter species showed a relatively poor performance and may require more complex and improved propagation methods to obtain more satisfactory results. Key words: indolebutyric acid IBA , auxins, seed germination, vegetative propagation, cuttings.
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Establishment of propagation methods for growing promising aromatic plant species of the Lippia Verbenaceae and Tagetes Asteraceae genera in Colombia.
The objective of this study was to evaluate methods of asexual propagation with stem cuttings in the aromatic plant species Lippia origanoides accessions CA and CA , Lippia alba accession CA and Tagetes zypaquirensis accession CA and determine the germination behavior of Tagetes caracasana accession CA , in order to contribute to the establishment of these promising aromatics as potential new crops in Colombia.
In general, the accessions CA, CA, CA and CA showed better rooting percentage, root length, number of roots and root dry weight in the fine coconut fiber substrate and a higher number of roots with an exogenous application of 2, mg L -1 IBA. The latter species showed a relatively poor performance and may require more complex and improved propagation methods to obtain more satisfactory results.
Key words: indolebutyric acid IBA , auxins, seed germination, vegetative propagation, cuttings. Las semillas de T. The cultivation of native plant species, with potential uses as spices, seasonings, and sources of essential oils EO and derived products in Colombia, is an excellent alternative for growers and has a potential application in agriculture such as biological control and industry.
Colombia has unexplored flora with good potential for the production of EO. However, these plants, as is characteristic of native species that are often found in the wild, lack methods of propagation and agronomic management, which limits their use as potential new crops. Furthermore, in Colombia, producers and processors of aromatic plant species face various limitations, including issues of quality, performance and traceability for processing.
One consequence of this is the low participation of Colombia in the global market for aromatic plants. This low competitiveness is due to various factors, one of which is the lack of technology for mass propagation and crop management, and the lack of knowledge of the potential of native species that offer better alternatives for production and marketing.
The establishment of propagation and micropropagation techniques for aromatic species that show promise as potential new crops is important in order to ensure rapid reproduction to provide enough material for the high demand that can be generated in a production chain. One of the strategies in the development of a production chain is the establishment of mass production of seed and planting material, which requires standardization of propagation techniques.
Among the promising aromatic plants for Colombia based on quality and bioactivity of essential oils are species of the Verbenaceae family such as Lippia alba Mill.
The genus Tagetes is native to the New World and the species T. According to herbarium records of the Missouri Botanical Garden, L. Accordingly, the species L. For the Lippia genus, in vitro micropropagation protocols have been reported that manage the production of plants with chemical profiles identical to plants normally propagated Gupta et al.
The reports indicate that the seeds of L. There is one study that suggests the use of seeds for propagation of several wild species of Lippia from Brazil where asexual propagation methods have proved inefficient Pimenta et al. For some Lippia species that are in danger of extinction such as L. For Tagetes , there are a few reports related to methods of sexual and asexual propagation Ferreira et al. For T.
Specifically for T. Establishing propagation methods for promising aromatic species is important because there may be some relationship between the propagation method and cultural practices used and the yield and composition of essential oils and other chemical compounds. Musarurwa et al. Taking into account these facts, the objective of this study was to contribute to the establishment of the aromatic species L. Based on previous observations on the yield and composition of essential oils and bioactivity tests on plant pathogens unpublished data , five accessions of the four species under study were selected, namely, L.
The collection site for each of the accessions is shown in Tab. Due to the low perceptibility and complexity of seed selection and management in these species, the propagation methods used for evaluation were vegetative asexual reproduction , except for the species T. Again, there are no propagation methods established for T. In contrast, T. The propagation and evaluation were carried out in greenhouse conditions at the facilities of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, located at 2, m a.
The temperature and relative humidity in the greenhouse ranged between Stock plants were established from cuttings collected in the field. Cuttings were planted in germination trays, covered with transparent plastic to maintain high humidity and irrigated with a micro spray system.
After a period of eight weeks, the seedlings were transplanted in a greenhouse with plastic cover and grown during a period of at least 32 weeks, after which the plants accumulated enough biomass to provide cuttings.
Cuttings were taken from flowering stock plants. The cuttings were selected from the middle stratum of the plant and branches, with a size between 12 and 14 cm, 2 to 3 nodes, and semi-woody texture. The cuttings were immersed for 5 min in liquid solution at different concentrations of the hormone indolebutyric acid IBA and were subsequently planted in germination trays with 24 wells, with dimensions of 5. In previous studies, it has been observed that an immersion time of 5 min at different IBA concentrations is necessary to promote rooting in cuttings of other plant species Frangi and Nicola, ; Struve and Moser, The trays with the cuttings were distributed on a raised greenhouse bed and moistened with a micro spray system with micro sprinklers 40 L h -1 spaced every 30 cm, using a run time of 5 min d The experiment was conducted with a completely randomized design and a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement factors: substrate and IBA concentration with three replicates for a total of nine treatments.
The experimental unit was composed of ten cuttings, for an experiment size of cuttings for each accession. Upon completion of two months in the study, three cuttings were sampled at random for each experimental unit, for a total of nine cuttings evaluated per treatment; size was subject to the availability of viable material in response to each treatment and species, after the mentioned period.
The variables evaluated at the end of two months for the four accessions are summarized in Tab. In the case of the species T. The same test was performed in germination trays with peat TRM7, with two replicates of 50 seeds, arranged in a greenhouse. Measurements were taken every week from germinated seeds in this study, germination was defined as radicle protrusion, according to Drewes and van Staden, The latter variable determines the number of seeds germinated at intervals of seven d and its numerical value was estimated according to Moreno et al.
Seeds for germination tests were harvested two d before the tests from 4 month-old stock plants. Stock plants were established from seeds collected from mature plants growing wild. Seeds brought from the wild were sown on a raised greenhouse mist bed where germination took place in a period of about three weeks.
Seedlings were then transplanted to the field two months later to establish stock plants. An analysis of variance ANOVA and multiple comparison tests to evaluate differences between the effects of the treatments were used. The Tab. The results for each species are presented below.
Accession CA It can be observed in Tab. Also, in the absence of hormone, cuttings showed longer roots and larger number of roots Fig. On the other hand, root dry weight was not affected by substrate or IBA concentration.
The results of this study are similar to other reports in other plant species such as the Atlantic white cedar Chamaecyparis thyoides [L.
The higher percentage of rooting observed in this study in the absence of exogenous hormone could be due to the accumulation of endogenous auxins that promote root initiation Casimiro et al. Certain flavonoids have been found to act as auxin transport inhibitors that participate in regulating auxin flow in plant tissues Wasson et al. In summary, both the substrate fine coconut fiber and the non-application of IBA Tab.
The combination of substrates FCFCSRS may generate a greater retention of moisture, favoring the emission of roots in the cuttings but not the weight of the roots dry weight formed per cutting. Black and Zimmerman proposed that inorganic substrates with coal slag could be suitable for rooting cuttings. Coconut fiber is a substrate with good buffering and high water retention capacities, which are useful for reducing the frequency of irrigation; and has a low bulk density Quintero et al.
Apparently, the combination of the three substrates generates physicochemical characteristics that help in rooting stem cuttings in this accession. The rooting percentage and the number of roots were slightly higher in the substrate FCF, while root length and root dry weight performed better in the FCFCS substrate Tab. For IBA concentration, there were significant differences for the variables rooting, root length and root dry weight for the different concentrations tested Tab.
In conclusion, one could say that for the vegetative propagation of L. These results are interesting because the situation is different for other plant species where the exogenous application of auxin is important for growth and plant development, with stimulation of adventitious rooting of cuttings Campana and Ochoa, ; Hartmann et al.
Figure 2 compares the overall development of the evaluated accessions of L. In general, the average rooting percentage observed for the two evaluated accessions of L. In a previous study, several non-domesticated wild species of the genus Lippia from Brazil L. It is interesting to see that the accession CA of L. It can be concluded that more complex propagation methods may be needed for this species in order to obtain more satisfactory results.
In general, this species registered the highest values for root length, number of roots and root dry weight among all the species analyzed and in the FCF substrate Tab. In the same way, longer roots were observed when the hormone was not applied. In contrast, the application of hormone promoted the number of roots in the cuttings.
Although IBA concentration had no statistically significant effect on root dry weight, it can be seen in Tab. Pimenta et al. In summary, accession CA of L. The results of this study are consistent with previous reports on L. With a value of Longer roots and larger root dry weight were also observed in the absence of hormone, but a larger number of roots was observed when the hormone was applied. In general, during the study, this accession was seen as easily propagated, and in this sense is similar to L.
For the asexual propagation of this species, the substrate FCF may be used because this seems to promote rooting, and auxin may be added to promote the growing of more roots.
Germination tests were performed for T. The germination speed index GSI was 4. These percentages of germination are relatively high when compared with germination in other wild species of the genus, such as Tagetes lucida, which presents a large number of sterile seeds Acosta de la Luz et al.
The rooting of cuttings of L. For its part, the seeds of T. The performance of L. Thanks are due to Professor Stanislav Magnitskiy for his valuable contributions to the design of the experiments. Acosta de la Luz, L. Estudios preliminares para el establecimiento del cultivo de Tagetes lucida Cav on line.
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