The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass production of steel from molten pig iron before the development of the open hearth furnace. The key principle is removal of impurities from the iron by oxidation with air being blown through the molten iron. The oxidation also raises the temperature of the iron mass and keeps it molten. Related decarburizing with air processes had been used outside Europe for hundreds of years, but not on an industrial scale. The modern process is named after its inventor, the Englishman Henry Bessemer , who took out a patent on the process in The process using a basic refractory lining is known as the "basic Bessemer process" or Gilchrist—Thomas process after the English discoverers Percy Gilchrist and Sidney Gilchrist Thomas.

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From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Henry Bessemer. Subcategories This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total. Media in category "Bessemer converter" The following 53 files are in this category, out of 53 total. A scene in a steel mill, Republic Steel, Youngstown, Ohio. A scene in a steel mill, Republic Steel, Youngstown, Ohio1av cropped.

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Henry Bessemer



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Bessemer process




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