Os medicamentos predominantemente utilizados foram os imunossupressores. Descritores: Uso de medicamentos. Transplante de rim. Los medicamentos se utilizan principalmente inmunosupresores. Participaram do estudo 18 transplantados renais residentes em Dourados. O medicamento como parte do cotidiano.
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Inicio Equipo investigador Entidades colaboradoras Memoria 1. Introduccion 2. Resultados 4. Conclusiones 5. Anexos Base datos Contacto. Changes in the roles of the government and the private sector in the provision of public services along with budget constraints are resulting in an increasing use of the concession approach for financing and managing roads. In the last few years, many of these contracts set up incentives linked to bonuses to encourage the concessionaire to render a better service to the users.
Road safety is one Road safety is one the aspects on the basis of which concessionaires can be rewarded according to their performance. The goal of this paper is to evaluate whether road safety incentives are being defined in the right way nowadays in different European countries and also identify what incentives would need to be implemented to achieve a socially optimal road safety level.
To that end, we develop a specific incentive for road concession contracts that encourages companies to achieve the optimal level. We apply this methodology to three case studies of concessions recently awarded in order to determine to what extend the incentives they set up are closer or farther to the optimum.
The study of the dynamic behaviour of electric vehicles is being incorporated in the syllabuses of an increasing number of graduate and undergraduate courses. This paper analyses the basic mechanical and electric concepts of electric traction applied to automobiles. For this purpose, in this work the switched reluctance motor is analysed. It allows students to gain a better understanding of the fundamental mechanical and electrical concepts by simulating the system behavior in an interactive and flexible manner.
Background: Partnerships between corporate entities and non-governmental organizations NGOs involved in delivering community focused health and well-being programs are becoming increasingly valuable especially in the context of promoting healthy lifestyles around the globe. The Mondelez International Foundation MIF has funded healthy lifestyles community based programs targeting children and The Mondelez International Foundation MIF has funded healthy lifestyles community based programs targeting children and youth through partnership with seven global NGOs.
To assess collective impact of these programs, it is crucial to identify best practices and common impact indicators that can be measured across programs. Objective: Share best practices and identify common impact indicators to measure the success of current and future MIF funded healthy lifestyles programs.
Results: Individual and combined analysis of PIPs of the seven NGO programs led to identification of three critical impact indicators: nutrition knowledge, physical activity, and healthier eating, and also enabled NGOs to identify pathways to improve program delivery among the target population. Conclusions: This workshop enabled MIF and partner NGOs to came together to align on metrics and future engagement approaches for promoting and evaluating community based healthy lifestyles programs.
We propose a new methodology for small vehicles: a sample of exhaust gas is collected by means of equipment based on United States Environmental Protection Agency U. EPA method 23A for stationary stack emissions.
All the results are discussed and compared with literature. C Elsevier B. All rights reserved. This work reports the results obtained over several years of research into the application of different geomatic techniques in the field of civil engineering and, in particular, in their application to the management of road systems and associated structures.
Among the main advances obtained are the quantification of parameters during the inventorying and inspection of infrastructures, the metric Among the main advances obtained are the quantification of parameters during the inventorying and inspection of infrastructures, the metric quality of the results and the development of hardware and software tools for the automation of road systems management.
This paper aims to determine the potential of the bicycle as a sustainable mode of transport in a medium-sized Spanish city Santander, in northern Spain with strong inclines and relatively inclement weather. For this purpose, a general methodology has been designed that could serve as an example for other areas.
First, potential bicycle users in the city are characterized and identified through First, potential bicycle users in the city are characterized and identified through a household survey, which included a complete travel diary. Then they were asked to participate in a stated preference survey designed to find out the relative importance of certain key variables, previously identified, associated with making bicycle journeys. These data were used to estimate mixed logit models allowing to correctly treat the pseudopanel nature of the data.
The results indicate that the most important variables among potential users are the cost and the climate, followed by the availability of infrastructure such as cycle paths and an extensive network of both public and private bicycle docking stations.
Finally, the willingness to change from traditional modes of transport, such as car and bus, to bicycle has been examined according to various policies designed to encourage more sustainable mobility such as bicycle and bus lanes and a city center congestion charge for private cars. The main finding of this research has been the identification of the conditions under which the bicycle could increase its market share from its current 0.
Two statistical applications for estimation and prediction of flows in traffic networks are presented. In the first, the number of route users are assumed to be independent -shifted gamma , 0 random variables denoted H , , 0 , with common 0.
As a consequence, the link, OD origin-destination and node flows are also H , , 0 variables. We assume that the main source of information is pl We assume that the main source of information is plate scanning, which permits us to identify, totally or partially, the vehicle route, OD and link flows by scanning their corresponding plate numbers at an adequately selected subset of links.
A Bayesian approach using conjugate families is proposed that allows us to estimate different traffic flows. In the second application, a stochastic demand dynamic traffic model to predict some traffic variables and their time evolution in real networks is presented. The Bayesian network model considers that the variables are generalized Beta variables such that when marginally transformed to standard normal become multivariate normal. The model is able to provide a point estimate, a confidence interval or the density of the variable being predicted.
Finally, the models are illustrated by their application to the Nguyen Dupuis network and the Vermont-State example. The resulting traffic predictions seem to be promising for real traffic networks and can be done in real time.
Usually, road networks are characterized by their great dynamics including different entities in interactions. This leads to more complex road traffic management. This paper proposes an adaptive multiagent system based on the ant colony behavior and the hierarchical fuzzy model.
This system allows adjusting efficiently the road traffic according to the real-time changes in road networks by the in This system allows adjusting efficiently the road traffic according to the real-time changes in road networks by the integration of an adaptive vehicle route guidance system.
The proposed system is implemented and simulated under a multiagent platform in order to discuss the improvement of the global road traffic quality in terms of time, fluidity and adaptivity. C Elsevier Ltd. This study evaluated the effectiveness and equity of a fee for vehicle miles traveled VMT for passenger vehicles in Nevada.
Equity was evaluated by considering the impact of the VMT fee on various population groups on the basis of socioecono Equity was evaluated by considering the impact of the VMT fee on various population groups on the basis of socioeconomics, demographics, household type, location, and ownership of fuel-efficient vehicles.
To estimate the impacts on various VMT fees, a linear regression model was developed with the use of data from the National Household Travel Survey, which provided a mechanism to estimate VMT in Nevada as a function of the cost to drive, among other characteristics.
The effectiveness and the equity of two alternative VMT fees were compared with the existing fuel tax system. These fees were calculated on the basis of the average fuel efficiency of vehicles in Nevada and the historical revenue from the state fuel tax.
In general, a VMT fee of 3. Although the 33 cents per mile fee had a slightly greater impact on various population groups, its equitable distribution of the tax burden among Thus, a 3. Therefore, one of the strategic priorities detailed in highway safety plans is the specific study of these highways. This study aimed at investigating crash patterns and contributory factors on rural two-lane highways so as to propose specific road safety countermeasures.
The analysis method consisted in identifying decision rules The analysis method consisted in identifying decision rules extracted from decision trees DTs. For this problem to be overcome, an in-depth method for extracting rules from DTs was used. Because the implementation of any corrective road safety measure is constrained by the available resources, the strongest patterns that describe the road safety issue must be extracted. For identification of the strongest rules, a new criterion, lift increase criterion, was defined.
Single-vehicle crashes on two-lane rural highways in the province of Granada in Spain were analyzed. Crash data were relative to the 7-year period to Rules were obtained by using both gain information and the information gain ratio as splitting criterion. The rules obtained by application of both criteria were consistent and complementary; therefore, the authors recommend the use of both methods to build DTs.
Results of the study highlighted several patterns contributing to severe crashes and potentially effective countermeasures. Main patterns were pedestrian crashes, run-off-the-road crashes, run-off-the-road crashes involving powered two-wheelers, crashes involving powered two-wheelers, and crashes at night without illumination.
Some mechanical systems, such as steering, brakes, and suspension, critically affect the safety of the vehicle.
These systems are subject to wear through use and time, changing their status throughout the lifetime of a vehicle. It is, therefore, essential to develop adequate components and procedures of inspection that ensure the correct operation of these systems. Moreover, the steering inspecti Moreover, the steering inspection must guarantee certain requirements, such as, being able to test any vehicle steering system and being low priced.
In addition, one of the most important requirements for any inspection procedure is to provide the measurements in a short time. This fact conditions the measurement process and sensors to be employed. The current steering system that measures the steering angles is time consuming.
The aim of this research is to introduce a steering system inspection based on forces measured by means of a dynamometer plate. The main features of the proposed system ensure minimum testing time, and simple operation and avoid manipulation of the vehicle.
In addition, precise and objective limits for acceptance and rejection have been established. Therefore, the proposed procedure meets all the requirements for the periodic motor vehicle inspection PMVI.
This study addressed the need for more detailed weather information in the context of pavement design with the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide from weather information available for Chile. An initial database was developed with the available hourly data in the country, and the sensitivity of distress predictions for Chilean weather was studied.
Because of the limited availability of h Because of the limited availability of hourly climatic data, different methods were proposed for completing the missing data. As their inputs, the developed models used weather information that was more generally available. A sinusoidal-exponential model was used for the minimum and maximum daily temperature.
An exponential model for hourly humidity based on maximum and minimum daily humidity was also used.
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