In computer programming , assembly language or assembler language , [1] often abbreviated asm , is any low-level programming language in which there is a very strong correspondence between the instructions in the language and the architecture's machine code instructions. Assembly language may also be called symbolic machine code. Assembly code is converted into executable machine code by a utility program referred to as an assembler. The conversion process is referred to as assembly , as in assembling the source code. Assembly language usually has one statement per machine instruction , but comments and statements that are assembler directives , [5] macros , [6] [1] and symbolic labels of program and memory locations are often also supported. The term "assembler" is generally attributed to Wilkes , Wheeler and Gill in their book The preparation of programs for an electronic digital computer , [7] who, however, used the term to mean "a program that assembles another program consisting of several sections into a single program".

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Descubra todo lo que Scribd tiene para ofrecer, incluyendo libros y audiolibros de importantes editoriales. Computer instructions are represented, in a computer, as sequences of bits. Assembly language is very closely related to machine language, and there isusually a straightforward way to translate programs written in assembly language into machinelanguage. Assembly language is usually a direct translation of the machine language; one instruction in assembly language corresponds to one instruction in the machine language.

Because of the close relationship between machine and assembly languages, each dierent machine architecture usually has its own assembly language in fact, a particular architecture may have several , and each is unique.

RAM is a place to where the programs are loaded in order to be executed. The first reason to work with assembler is that it provides the opportunity of knowing more the operation of your PC, which allows the development of software in a more consistent manner.

The second reason is the total control of the PC which you can have with the use of the assembler. Another reason is that the assembly programs are quicker, smaller, and have larger capacities than ones created with other languages.

Lastly, the assembler allows an ideal optimization in programs, be it on their size or on their execution. There are many ways to represent the same numeric value. Long ago, humans used sticks to count, and later learned how to draw pictures of sticks in the ground and eventually on paper.

So, the number 5 was first represented as: for five sticks. Later on, the Romans began using different symbols for multiple numbers of sticks: still meant three sticks, but a V now meant five sticks, and an X was used to represent ten of them!

Using sticks to count was a great idea for its time. And using symbols instead of real sticks was much better. Most people today use decimal representation to count. In the decimal system there are 10 digits:. Number The value is formed by the sum of each digit, multiplied by the base in this case it is 10 because there are 10 digits in decimal system in power of digit position counting from zero :.

Computers are not as smart as humans are or not yet , it's easy to make an electronic machine with two states: on and off, or 1 and 0. Computers use binary system, binary system uses 2 digits: 0, 1. And thus the base is 2. There is a convention to add "b" in the end of a binary number, this way we can determine that b is a binary number with decimal value of 5. The binary number b equals to decimal value of Hexadecimal numbers are compact and easy to read.

It is very easy to convert numbers from binary system to hexadecimal system and viceversa, every nibble 4 bits can be converted to a hexadecimal digit using this table: Decimal base 10 Binary base 2 Hexadecimal base There is a convention to add "h" in the end of a hexadecimal number, this way we can determine that 5Fh is a hexadecimal number with decimal value of We also add "0" zero in the beginning of hexadecimal numbers that begin with a letter A..

F , for example 0Eh. The hexadecimal number h is equal to decimal value of In order to convert from decimal system, to any other system, it is required to divide the decimal value by the base of the desired system, each time you should remember the result and keep the remainder, the divide process continues until the result is zero.

The remainders are then used to represent a value in that system. As you see we got this hexadecimal number: 27h. All remainders were below 10 in the above example, so we do not use any letters. There is no way to say for sure whether the hexadecimal byte 0FFh is positive or negative, it can represent both decimal value "" and "1". Using this complex way to represent negative numbers has some meaning, in math when you add "- 5" to "5" you should get zero. This is what happens when processor adds two bytes 5 and , the result gets over , because of the overflow processor gets zero!

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What is Assembly Language? Why learn assembler language The first reason to work with assembler is that it provides the opportunity of knowing more the operation of your PC, which allows the development of software in a more consistent manner. Numbering systems There are many ways to represent the same numeric value.

Decimal System Most people today use decimal representation to count. Computers use binary system, binary system uses 2 digits: 0, 1 And thus the base is 2. It is very easy to convert numbers from binary system to hexadecimal system and viceversa, every nibble 4 bits can be converted to a hexadecimal digit using this table: Decimal base 10 Binary base 2 Hexadecimal base 16 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E 15 There is a convention to add "h" in the end of a hexadecimal number, this way we can determine that 5Fh is a hexadecimal number with decimal value of Let's convert the value of 39 base 10 to Hexadecimal System base 16 : As you see we got this hexadecimal number: 27h.

Signed Numbers There is no way to say for sure whether the hexadecimal byte 0FFh is positive or negative, it can represent both decimal value "" and "1". Documentos similares a Tutorial Bahasa Rakitan 1. Srinivasa Rao G. Madhusudan Singh Rathore. Rafael Taylor. Anil Agrawal.

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