ARCHIBALD SCOTT COUPER PDF

Archibald Scott Couper was born on March 31, , at Kirkintilloch in Dumbartonshire, Scotland, the son of a prosperous cotton weaver. He commenced his university studies at Glasgow mainly in classics, spent the summer semester of in Berlin, and returned to Scotland to complete his university course in logic and metaphysics at Edinburgh. He spent the period in Berlin and during this time decided to study chemistry. Couper entered the laboratory of Charles Wurtz in Paris in the autumn of and remained there until his return to Scotland in ; during these 2 years he made all his contributions to chemistry: two papers containing experimental contributions and his now famous memoir "On a New Chemical Theory. He retired to Kirkintilloch and lived there incapable of intellectual work and completely lost to chemistry until his death 34 years later. Early in Couper, then 27 and after only some 3 years' contact with chemistry, asked Wurtz to present Couper's manuscript "On a New Chemical Theory" to the French Academy.

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Kirkintilloch, Dumbartonshire, Scotland, 31 March ; d. Kirkintilloch, 11 March Couper, at the same time as F.

He also introduced into organic chemistry lines to represent valence bonds in chemical formulas. All his papers were published in barely over a year, after which ill health terminated his scientific career. Couper was the only surviving son of Archibald and Helen Dollar Couper. His father was proprietor of a large cotton-weaving business that had been owned by the family for several generations. Couper received most of his early education at home and then went to Glasgow University for study in the humanities and classical languages.

The summers of and he spent in Germany, and in August he entered the University of Edinburgh, studying logic and metaphysics under Sir William Hamilton while continuing his language studies. During the year — Couper moved to Berlin, where, sometime before his departure for Paris in , he chose chemistry as his field of major interest. After moving to Paris in August , Couper engaged in independent research in the laboratory of Charles Adolphe Wurtz. His first publication—on the bromination of benzene—appeared in August His other experimental paper, on salicylic acid , was published in Dumas in June and was published soon thereafter.

Couper complained to Wurtz about the delay in presenting his paper and was asked to leave the laboratory.

He returned to Scotland in the fall of and accepted a position as second laboratory assistant to Lyon Playfair , professor of chemistry at Edinburgh University. Soon after beginning his duties he suffered a mental breakdown, underwent treatment, apparently recovered, and went on a fishing expedition, during which, reportedly due to extended exposure to the sun, his illness returned.

He never fully recovered and lived in retirement for the remaining thirty-four years of his life. Wurtz had just prepared ethylene glycol, C 2 H 4 OH 2 , from ethylene via the iodide C 2 H 4 I 2 reacted with silver acetate, followed by treatment with potassium hydroxide.

Couper reacted benzene with bromine and isolated two new compounds, bromo-benzene, C 6 H 5 Br, and p -dibromobenzene, C 6 H 4 Br 2. The first showed only very slight reactivity with silver acetate, while the second led to an explosion.

This represented the first time that the relations between the individual carbon atoms of benzene had been depicted in a formula. Having ascertained these, the composition and structure of every possible word is revealed.

These two principles are the foundation of the structural theory of organic chemistry. Couper then devised a pictorial representation of chemical compounds using dotted lines, solid lines, or brackets to show the linkings between atoms in the molecule. These formulas represent the first introduction of the valence line into organic formulas.

Since Couper used an atomic weight of eight for oxygen, his formulas always contain a pair of oxygen atoms instead of the single atom used today. In Couper introduced the first ring formula into organic chemistry, to represent the structure of cyanuric acid.

Couper maintained that several elements, such as carbon, notrogen, and phosphorous, exhibit multiple valence. Pinkus, P. Walrep, and W. Benfey, ed. Original Works. Anschutz, ed. Secondary Literature. On Couper or his work, see R. Great Chemists New York , , pp. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. May 23, Retrieved May 23, from Encyclopedia.

Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. Archibald Scott Couper was born on March 31, , at Kirkintilloch in Dumbartonshire, Scotland, the son of a prosperous cotton weaver. He commenced his university studies at Glasgow mainly in classics, spent the summer semester of in Berlin, and returned to Scotland to complete his university course in logic and metaphysics at Edinburgh.

He spent the period in Berlin and during this time decided to study chemistry. Couper entered the laboratory of Charles Wurtz in Paris in the autumn of and remained there until his return to Scotland in ; during these 2 years he made all his contributions to chemistry: two papers containing experimental contributions and his now famous memoir "On a New Chemical Theory.

He retired to Kirkintilloch and lived there incapable of intellectual work and completely lost to chemistry until his death 34 years later. Early in Couper, then 27 and after only some 3 years' contact with chemistry, asked Wurtz to present Couper's manuscript "On a New Chemical Theory" to the French Academy.

Couper protested to Wurtz about his procrastination but was, it is said, shown out of the laboratory. Couper's paper was, however, finally presented by Jean Baptiste Dumas to the academy on June 14, , and published in the Comptes rendus; fuller versions were subsequently published in English and French. After pointing out the inadequacy of current theories, Couper wrote in his paper: "I propose to consider the single element carbon.

This body is found to have two highly distinguished characteristics: 1 It combines with equal numbers of equivalents of hydrogen, chlorine, oxygen, sulphur, etc. These two properties, in my opinion, explain all that is characteristic of organic chemistry.

This will be rendered apparent as I advance. This second property is, so far as I am aware, here signalized for the first time. Couper also introduced the use of a line to indicate the valence linkage between two atoms and, had he used 16 rather than 8 for the atomic weight of oxygen, his chemical formulas would have been almost identical with those used today. It is also remarkable that in his paper he represents cyanuric acid by a formula containing a ring of three carbon and three nitrogen atoms joined by valence lines—the first ring formula ever published.

But Couper's paper "On a New Chemical Theory" remains a landmark in the history of organic chemistry. Couper, Archibald Scott gale. Couper, Archibald Scott b. Kirkintilloch, 11 March chemistry. Formulas in this paragraph are those now in use.

Otto Theodor Benfey. Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Learn more about citation styles Citation styles Encyclopedia. Archibald Scott Couper gale. More From encyclopedia. Chistopol, Kazanskaya [now Tatarskaya, A. Neueden, Oldenburg, Germany, 7 January ; d. Berlin, Germany, 28 February chemistry, mineral….

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He developed the concepts of tetravalent carbon atoms linking together to form large molecules, and that the bonding order of the atoms in a molecule can be determined from chemical evidence. Couper was the only surviving son of a wealthy textile mill owner near Glasgow. He studied at the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh and intermittently in Germany during the years Couper published his "New Chemical Theory" in French in a condensed form on 14 June , [1] then in detailed papers simultaneously in French [2] and English [3] in August When Couper angrily confronted Wurtz, Wurtz expelled him from the laboratory. In December , Couper received an offer of an assistantship from the University of Edinburgh.

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Archibald Scott Couper (1831-1892)

Kirkintilloch, Dumbartonshire, Scotland, 31 March ; d. Kirkintilloch, 11 March Couper, at the same time as F. He also introduced into organic chemistry lines to represent valence bonds in chemical formulas. All his papers were published in barely over a year, after which ill health terminated his scientific career. Couper was the only surviving son of Archibald and Helen Dollar Couper.

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Couper, Archibald Scott

He wrote papers on the bromide derivatives of benzene, the constitution of salicylic acid and a new theory on the linking of carbon atoms. Archibald Scott Couper retumed to Edinburgh to work with Lyon Playfair but his health broke down and he was admitted to an asylum. From onwards he was cared for by his mother and an attendant. A plaque on his home in Kirkintilloch was erected by public subscription to mark the centenary of his birth. It has been signed by Robert Adams, registrar and George Seton, Secretary on behalf of the Registrar General and initialled by the examiner. The census return for the parish of Kirkintilloch shows that his father was a cotton manufacturer and that all three were born in the county 'Y'. In Arch[ibal]d Cooper, 19, student was enumerated with his parents at Townhead.

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Archibald Scott Couper

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