APRENDIZAJE LATENTE TOLMAN PDF

Publicado: Dec 13, Citas Adler, K. Individuality in the use of orientation cues by green frogs. Animal Behaviour, 28, Biegler, R. Landmark stability: Further studies pointing to a role in spatial learning.

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Concretamente, un cambio en el comportamiento de las ratas hembra a medida que se hacen adultas. In this article we addressed the question whether rats can use distal landmarks as directional cues that are used in combination with other proximal landmark configurations.

We also added another more distal "directional" cue Z a white strip attached to the black curtain surrounding the pool. Experiment 1 shows a robust detrimental effect on the time spent by the rats swimming in the platform quadrant when the location of all landmarks was "Inverted" rotated by degrees with respect to Z. A similar detrimental effect was found when, after the inversion manipulation, the locations of the near and far landmarks were "Flipped" B swapped with C and A with D.

Rats in both Inverted and Flipped tests spent more time in the Z quadrant compared to the platform quadrant BC. Experiment 1b provided evidence distinguishing between alternative explanations of how the directional cue Z acts in combination with the other landmarks.

The results from both experiments show that Z operates differently to the standard landmarks. It can function as a beacon in its own right. Examples concerning rodents and humans will be presented since there is an important parallelism between them when dealing with spatial tasks.

However, most of the examples will focus on how males and females differ when solving these tasks? To understand the sexually-dimorphic spatial abilities between males and females? For different reasons, this hypothesis applies to both, rodents and humans.

A brief description of the role of the hippocampus while navigating and of the evolutionary origins of the human species is also presented. For navigational strategies and mechanisms used by rats see Rodentia Navigation in the present issue for the same in humans, see Ekstrom et al. In three experiments rats of different age were trained in a circular pool to find a hidden platform whose location was defined in terms of a single a landmark, a cylinder outside the pool.

Following training two main components of the landmark, its shape and pattern, were tested individually. Experiment 1 was with adolescent and adult rats 1a, males; 1b, females.

Adult rats always learned faster than adolescent animals. On test trials interesting tendencies were found, mainly one favouring males on the shape test trial and another favouring females on the pattern test trial. Then Experiment 2 was conducted only with adolescent rats and males and females did not differ when learning the task.

However on test trials, males learned more about the landmark shape component than about the landmark pattern component, while females learned equally about the two components of the landmark. Finally, Experiment 3 was conducted only with adult rats and again males and females did not differ when learning the task. However on test trials, males learned equally about the two components of the landmark shape and pattern , although females learned more about the landmark pattern component than about the landmark shape component.

This set of experiments supports the claim that male and female rats can learn rather different things about a landmark that signals the location of the platform, age being a critical variable. There is abundant research both in rodents and in humans showing that males and females often use different types of information in spatial navigation.

Males prefer geometry as a source of information, whereas females tend to focus on landmarks which are often near to a goal objects. However, when considering the role of the hippocampus, the research focuses primarily on males only. Both when landmark learning and when geometry learning, Sham male rats learned significantly faster than Lesion male animals. This was not the case with female rats whith geometry learning.

These results suggest that the dorsal hippocampus could play an important role in males only. The present volume is a homage to Professor N. Mackintosh , an outstanding academic and a dear friend and colleague to many of the participants, as a final tribute after being awarded the Gold Medal by the University of Barcelona November Although the topics of the chapters in this book have been freely chosen by the authors Geoffrey Hall, Anthony Dickinson, John M.

Durlach, Irina Baetu to mention a few , as well as the type of contribution either an empirical paper, a review, or an application , they concentrate on issues that are crucial to the understanding of the basic principles of attention and associative learning both Pavlovian and instrumental , in humans and also in other animals.

In other words, to unravel the nature of conditioning, with a special emphasis on perceptual learning. The effects of early environmental enrichment EE and voluntary wheel running on the preference for using a landmark or pool geometry when solving a simple spatial task in adult male and female rats were assessed. After weaning, rats were housed in same-sex pairs in enriched or standard cages EE and control groups for two and a half months. Then the rats were trained in a triangular-shaped pool to find a hidden platform whose location was defined in terms of these two sources of information, a landmark outside the pool and a particular corner of the pool.

As expected, enriched rats reached the platform faster than control animals, and males and females did not differ. Enriched rats also performed better on subsequent test trials without the platform with the cues individually presented either pool geometry or landmark.

However, on a preference test without the platform, a clear sex difference was found: Females spent more time in an area of the pool that corresponded to the landmark, whereas males spent more time in the distinctive corner of the pool.

The results agree with the claim that environmental enrichment is a consequence of a reduced anxiety response measured by thigmotaxis during cognitive testing. A possible implication of ancestral selection pressures is discussed.

The present set of experiments evaluated the possibility that the hormonal changes that appear at the onset of puberty might influence the strategies used by female rats to solve a spatial navigation task. In each experiment, rats were trained in a triangular shaped pool to find a hidden platform which maintained a constant relationship with two sources of information, one individual landmark and one corner of the pool with a distinctive geometry.

Then, three test trials were conducted without the platform in counterbalanced order. In one, both the geometry and the landmark were simultaneously presented, although in different spatial positions, in order to measure the rats preferences. In the remaining test trials what the rats had learned about the two sources of information was measured by presenting them individually.

In Experiment 2, day old female rats, unlike adults, preferred to solve the task using the geometry information rather than the landmark although juvenile males behaved in exactly the same way as adults. Experiment 3 directly compared the performance of and day old females and found that while the adult females preferred to solve the task using the landmark, the reverse was true in juvenile females.

Experiment 4 compared ovariectomized and sham operated females and found that while sham operated females preferred to solve the task using the landmark, the reverse was true in ovariectomized females. Finally, Experiment 5 directly compared adult males and females, juvenile males and females, and ovariectomized females and found that adult males, juvenile males and females, and ovariectomized females did not differ among them in their preferred cue, but they all differed from adult females.

This suggests that none of the landmarks was completely overshadowed by any of the others. In Experiment 1 one pair of groups was trained with four equally salient visual landmarks spaced at equal intervals around the edge of the pool, while a second pair was trained with two landmarks only, either relatively close to or far from the hidden platform. After extensive training, both male and female rats showed a reciprocal overshadowing effect: on a test with two landmarks only either close to or far from the platform , rats trained with four landmarks spent less time in the platform quadrant than those trained with only two.

Experiment 2 showed that animals trained with two landmarks and then tested with four also performed worse on test than those trained and tested with two landmarks only. This suggests that generalization decrement, rather than associative competition, provides a sufficient explanation for the overshadowing observed in Experiment 1. Experiment 3 provided a within-experiment replication of the results of Experiments 1 and 2. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that rats trained with a configuration of two landmarks learn their identity.

Rats were trained in a triangular-shaped pool to find a hidden platform, whose location was defined in terms of two sources of information, a landmark outside the pool and a particular corner of the pool. Subsequent test trials without the platform pitted these two sources of information against one another.

This test revealed a clear sex difference. Females spent more time in an area of the pool that corresponded to the landmark, whereas males spent more time in the distinctive corner of the pool even though further tests revealed that both sexes had learned about the two sources of information by presenting cues individually.

The results agree with the claim that males and females use different types of information in spatial navigation. In Experiments 1 and 2, rats were trained in a Morris pool to find a hidden platform located some distance away from a single landmark. Males learned to swim to the platform faster than females, but on test trials without the platform, males, unlike females, spent less time in the platform quadrant of the pool in the second half of each test trial than in the first.

They also showed greater persistence in searching in the platform quadrant over a series of extinction trials. In Experiments 3a and 3b, the problem was made easier by locating the platform closer to the solitary landmark.

Now males and females learned to swim to the platform equally rapidly, and both stopped searching in the platform quadrant in the second half of each test trial. The rats also underwent inhibitory trials Experiment 1: Trials AZ? In both experiments, subsequent test trials without the platform showed both a summation effect and retardation of excitatory conditioning, and in Experiment 2a rats learned to avoid the CDE quadrant over the course of the experiment.

Two further experiments established that these results could not be attributed to any difference in salience between the conditioned inhibitors and the control stimuli. All these results contribute to the growing body of evidence consistent with the idea that there is a general mechanism of learning that is associative in nature.

Chamizo, V. All publications. Civile, C. Directional Cues and Landmark Configurations: The effect of rotating one set of landmarks relative to another. Sansa, J. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 72, What makes a landmark effective in adolescent and adult rats? Learning and Behavior, 47, Spatial orientation.

Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior. New York: Springer. Lugo, F. Two strategies used to solve a navigation task: A different use of the hippocampus by males and females? A preliminary study in rats. Rodentia navigation.

Shackelford Eds. New York: Springer doi: Bernal Gamboa Eds. Cromo Editores S. ISBN: Mesa, V. Geometric vs. Learning and Motivation, 60, Ver publicacion. Environmental enrichment in the absence of wheel running produces beneficial behavioural and anti-oxidative effects in rats.

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The definition of latent learning in the dictionary is learning mediated neither by reward nor by the expectation of reward. Educalingo cookies are used to personalize ads and get web traffic statistics. We also share information about the use of the site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners. Meaning of "latent learning" in the English dictionary. Latent learning. Synonyms and antonyms of latent learning in the English dictionary of synonyms.

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