AppKit contains all the objects you need to implement the user interface for a macOS app—windows, panels, buttons, menus, scrollers, and text fields—and it handles all the details for you as it efficiently draws on the screen, communicates with hardware devices and screen buffers, clears areas of the screen before drawing, and clips views. The framework also provides APIs you use to make your app accessible to users with disabilities see Accessibility ; to learn more about localizing your app for different languages, countries, or cultural regions, see Internationalization and Localization Guide. Organize your app's data and preferences, and share that data on the pasteboard or in iCloud. Manage the storyboards and nib files containing your app's user interface, and learn how to load data that is stored in resource files. Your app's user interface provides visual, audible, and tactile feedback to the user about what your app is doing. Incorporate scanned documents and pictures taken with a user's iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch into your Mac app using Continuity Camera.
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Each SDK is made up of individual libraries usually referred to as "Frameworks". On the Objective-C side, each framework is a bundle with the.
For Elements, each framework in the SDK is represented by a. Elements comes with pre-created. You can find a complete list of all frameworks in the lists below. You will see that many of the frameworks are shared by some or even all SDKs, providing a vast library of classes that let you write code that can be compiled for and shared between all sub-platforms, while each SDK also provides a significant number of frameworks that are platform-specific.
Probably the most critical framework for any Cocoa app is the Foundation framework, because — as the name implies — it provides much of the foundation classes that make up an application on the Objective-C runtime. Read more at about Foundation. It is available on all Cocoa sub-platforms. For this reason, the SDKs provide three very distinct frameworks:. There is also ClockKit for building watch face Complications. But a lot of the concepts behind the frameworks are similar, and you will find that learning to create applications on one will in many cases translate easily to the other.
For example, all three frameworks embrace the Model-View-Controller paradigm for separating the actual UI from the "controller" class that drives it.
This becomes apparent the moment you start creating your first UI, because rather than implementing your own Window or View class due to the single-window nature of iOS, UIKit applications think mostly in terms of views, not windows in code as you would in. Other topics on this docs site, such as the Working with XIB Files article discuss these concepts in more detail. Read more at about AppKit. Note : A Cocoa. This framework is merely a bundle of Foundation and AppKit.
It is not to be confused with our general use of the term "Cocoa" to refer to the entire platform. There are also a bunch of frameworks that let your application interact with system services, such as:. In addition to the core SDK frameworks, Elements provides three additional. Any Cocoa application will automatically reference rtl. References to libToffee. All projects created from templates will automatically reference libToffee. RemObjects Elements. Foundation Probably the most critical framework for any Cocoa app is the Foundation framework, because — as the name implies — it provides much of the foundation classes that make up an application on the Objective-C runtime.
User Interfaces: AppKit vs. UIKit vs. MapKit also works together tightly with CoreLocation, covered below. SpriteKit, new in both iOS 7. System Services There are also a bunch of frameworks that let your application interact with system services, such as: StoreKit to handle in-app purchases for iOS and Mac App Store apps.
Security to access the system key chain, store and retrieve passwords and certificates, etc. CoreAudio and CoreVideo to work with and play audio and video media.
GameKit to integrate your games with Game Center. CoreGraphics is the foundation of all graphics rendering in the core UI frameworks, and you can and will work with it when creating your own custom controls. QuartzCore contains ''CoreAnimation'', the library that provides sophisticated yet easy access to adding animation to your applications — a must for any modern iOS and Mac app.
UIKit for Mac with Elements
However, we also had some difficulties discovering the peculiarities of the Mac compared to developing for iOS. Although iOS and OS X are separate operating systems, they share a lot of commonalities, starting with the development environment — same language, same IDE. This year, Apple harmonized the platforms further and brought frameworks to the Mac that were previously only on iOS, one example being Multipeer Connectivity. The reason why, is when Apple introduced the iPhone, there was the chance to start from a clean slate and take what had been learned from AppKit: bring over the concepts and pieces that had proven to work well, and improve those that were less fortunate designs. The UI is constructed out of windows and views, with messages being sent over the responder chain just as on iOS. The similarity is more on the conceptual level than in the implementation. And a lot of the design patterns, such as delegation, will be similar.
Introduction to the Frameworks
Today's weekly build of Elements. As you all know Elements already makes it easy to share a lot of non-visual code — not just between Mac and iOS, but also other platforms, such as Android or Windows. Of course, building a great Mac app will always require a little extra effort and attention to detail for the platform, but getting an iPhone or iPad app running on the Mac is now basically just a single click away:. Simply set it to YES , and you're done. It's really that easy.