A green potentiometric method for determination of the acid number of oils and fats. A green titrimetric method using potentiometry is proposed for determination of the acid number of vegetable oils and animal fats. Canola, sunflower, linseed, castor, corn and soy oils as well as swine lard, a total of twelve real samples, were analyzed. No evidence for systematic differences was observed. Mean relative standard deviation for the proposed procedure was 2. Keywords: acid number, vegetable oil, animal fat, potentiometric method, green chemistry.
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Food Emulsifiers and Their Applications pp Cite as. Analytical methods used to measure food emulsifiers are derived from lipid analysis Firestone, ; Otles, ; Wood et al. Test Methods are of several types and are carried out for several reasons. Food additives are regulated by government agencies to ensure health and safety.
Specifications may be set for starting materials, products, processing methods, and maximum use levels in foods. Tests may also be necessary to ensure the absence of degradation products, microorganisms and foreign materials.
Composition of emulsifiers may be related to their functional performance in finished foods. Nongovernmental specifications for food emulsifiers may be negotiated between the supplier and the customer, usually a processed food producer. The customer may check the analyses as part of the receiving process, and accept or reject the shipment. Disputes may be submitted to an independent testing laboratory for resolution. To determine emulsifiers in intact food products, fats and emulsifiers must first be extracted.
Fats and oils are soluble in nonpolar solvents, such as hexane and toluene. However, emulsifiers are amphiphilic and therefore, less soluble, particularly when emulsifier concentration is high compared to total lipid. Because these solvents are classified as hazardous waste, provisions should be made for recycling. In cases where the lipid concentration is high relative to emulsifier concentration, extraction with hot hexane, followed by acetonitrile was reported Halverson and Qvist, Solid samples e.
Advertisement Hide. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Biacs, O. Acta Aloment Acad. Google Scholar. Blanco, M. Acta 13 : —8.
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Analysis of Food Emulsifiers
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