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In the present paper the care and education institutions, vocational schools , profes John J. On the basis of historiography and new historical sources, the article analyses models applied upbringing children of upper nobility in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 16th c.
The general and individual factors characteristic of the upper nobility of GDL, which predetermined upbringing of the children from the target social stratum, are discussed. Attempts are made to identify how early socialisation of girls and boys occurred as well as to discuss teaching of elder children girls and boys of upper nobility including the content of their teaching.
Keywords: the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the 16—17th centuries, child, childhood socialisation, models of upbringing, education in the period of GDL. Introduction Over all historic periods children have been an integral part of society.
To enable a child to take part in public life and to perform certain social roles, socialisation is needed. During this process social norms and values are internalised and a specific sense of identity of self-awareness is acquired Giddens, p. In other words, a child enters society and learns to perform certain roles. Broader synthesis has not been conducted and works focusing on separate problems have not been available. This work analyses the development of a pedagogical thought in the second half of the 18th c.
A certain breakthrough in research on history of old education was observed in the last decade of the 20th century. School and Pedagogical Thought in the 13—17th c. The studies of the education reform, which was launched in GDL in the 18th c. New details in the history of the old pedagogy were revealed conducting research on reformation in GDL.
Hence, the beginning was made establishing the network of schools in old Lithuania, the level of training in them as well as identifying the attitude of separate public figures, educators and teachers towards upbringing issues. It is obvious that seeking a broader picture of history of education, interdisciplinary studies are needed, which would employ the comparative analysis of science, religion, mentality, literature and others Classen, However, such studies are still few.
The monograph by Olga Mastianica , which focuses on slightly later experience in education the 19th century , is ascribed to works of bigger volume.
The works by Polish historians, who carried out research on education of children from the most distinguished GDL upper nobility families e. A number of more significant works by Henryk Wisner , Urszula Augustyniak should be mentioned as well as the research by Marian Chachaj , which discussed a broader range of literature on university studies of the Radvilos. The goal of the research: the article aims to present an overview of models of upbringing applied upbringing children of the upper nobility of GDL and their socialisation up to 14—16 years in the 16—17th centuries.
It does not make attempts to present an exhaustive analysis of the issue but is targeted at discussion of separate features of upbringing and models of socialisation based on gender issues. According to the Third Statute of Lithuania, a 14 year old girl was considered to be adult and was entitled to marriage, whereas a young man acquired this status at the age of Hence, upbringing of young men lasted until they reached the age of However, the tradition to send 14—16 year old boys to studies in Western Europe prevailed in GDL in the studied period.
Since the process of socialisation of those young people was different from the perspective of quality, it is not analysed in this article. The choice of the group of upper nobility in GDL of the 16th c. The knowledge of upbringing of lower strata of the society of the aforesaid period is very limited and this is also related to the fact that the majority of representatives of these social layers were illiterate.
The researchers noticed long time ago that the length of childhood was different to children of peasants, townspeople and nobility just as the status of these social strata. A child was approached in one way by peasants or town people, whereas in the families of nobility and upper nobility, in particular, attitudes towards child were totally different.
For example in the countryside, every pair of hands mattered in agricultural activities. Therefore, slightly elder children, who were already able to take part in household activities, were immediately introduced into the world of adults. Their childhood was shortened to maximum and lasted as long as a child was dependent on assistance and care. Differently from separate Western European countries, such as Denmark, which started implementing the idea of obligatory primary education as early as the 17th c.
Neither parents were eager to let their children attend schools, nor sufficient financial recourses were available for maintenance of primary schools. However, no such institution was established then and the situation did not change even one hundred years later.
The attitude of the local people towards education also changed and in the second half of the 18th c. Though the parson hired daraktorius for two years, the latter was fired because there were no students wiling to learn.
Similar situation was observed in other places in Lithuania. If in the whole deanery of Kaunas there were children attending schools in , the number of baptised children was two times bigger in separate parishes Upbringing and training of the upper nobility children were predetermined by a big number of individual as well as general features characteristic of the whole social group.
The officials in highest posts in the country, i. On the other hand, even the daughters in the families of lower rank nobility were not always able to write. For example, Zofija Zborovska, daughter of Gniezno castellan, who got married in Lithuania from Poland in the beginning of the 17th century, was illiterate.
In her letter of 31 December to her husband Z. Since J. Radvila had studied in Western Europe, his wife had to gear up. Several years later, the same Z. The religious factor and the gender of a child also played a significant role. So far no in-depth studies have been carried out into education of the upper nobility from different religious confessions Catholics, Protestants and Orthodoxies.
However it is clear that the content of religious study subjects, in particular, was different. Undoubtedly, a more considerable attention was allotted to upbringing and development of boys compared to girls.
The age of a child was also relevant. As it has already been mentioned, in the Third Statute of Lithuania a 14 year old girl was considered to be adult and a young man acquired this status at the age of Hence, upbringing of young men could have theoretically lasted from 14 to 18 years old. In fact, a nobleman or noblewoman may have been considered adults or independent from the others only after getting married.
He became the trustee of his aunts and took over part of possessions pledging to maintain the aunts according to their status. This was a short-term trust. The first stage of upbringing of child from the upper nobility stratum began with the birth and lasted until 7 years old. Thus, the process of education of upper nobility children of GDL in the 16th c.
The following of European models of elite children education German, French may be singled out as a more general tendency observed among the majority of representatives of upper nobility Augustyniak, , p. Early socialisation of children of upper nobility up to 7 years Birth of a boy and a girl was met equally joyfully and birth of successor of the family was a serious occasion. We kindly thank Your Kindness for such a happy and joyful piece of news and insist on your care of your health.
Despite all the aforesaid, birth of a daughter was also a joyful event. Parents also grieved for all the children, who passed away early.
It is enough to read several laments written by Jan Kochanowsk, the famous Polish poet, after the death of his beloved daughter Ursula 2. Theologists, lawyers and teachers, who made attempts to solve issues of upbringing, agreed that the biggest responsibility while preparing children for life was firstly assumed by the family and mothers, in particular, and only then school.
Mikalojus Rejus, who exalted marriage in the middle of the 16th c. The sources of the second half of the 16th c. The importance of the role of the mother was emphasised by a number of creators of fugitive literature. Such practice was observed in life if the mother did not die right after the childbirth. However, the farther himself would attentively enquire about his child and would attend him of her whenever he was able to.
In the beginning of the 17th c. Children were taken away from their mothers and placed under direct care of courtiers. However, even in such cases, mothers would communicate with their young children and attend them every day and would reside in the same manor as children. In more ordinary families young sons and daughters were looked after by mother herself as well as by nannies and courtiers.
For example, in the 16th c. At the end of the 16th c. The available correspondence of upper nobility evidences strong emotions of parents, their link with children and love to them.
This can be concluded from her letters to her husband K. For example, writing about her little sons Mikalojus and Kristupas, their mother E. Actually, moralists of that period, e.
In their early age boys and girls were reared together. Teachers firstly and most frequently prioritised moral education of children, which was understood as religious development of deep belief and civic devotion to the Motherland upbringing and teaching of customs. Thus, a considerable attention was allocated to religious upbringing of young children, who were taught faith, piety and submission.
Young children were taught elementary hygiene skills. Mothers and fathers either taught their children some manners e. GDL stable administrator Boguslovas Radvila had given instructions to nannies and servants regarding the diet, clothing, airing of premises and personal hygiene of his daughter Liudvika Karolina. The daughter was served fresh fruit in the morning, her teeth were brushed after meals, it was forbidden to heat premises too much and her underwear had to be changed daily Augustyniak,
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