ACANTHOPHORA SPICIFERA PDF

It often out competes other reef algae, such as species of Laurencia and Hypnea. Distribution of A. Map by Jen Smith. A Pocillipora meandrina surrounded by A. Erect plants, to 40 cm tall, with solid cylindrical branches, 2 - 3 mm wide, branched either sparingly to repeatedly.

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In Hawaii, A. However, it is not reported to form large, monospecific nuisance blooms. The genus Acanthophora was erected by J. Lamouroux in for Fucus acanthophorus, a species he had described in The genus Acanthophora was reviewed and revised by de Jong et al.

Plants to 25 cm, colour variable, light-pink, pale to dark-brown, green or yellow. Branches smooth, cylindrical, 0. Holdfast is an irregularly lobed, disc-like, thickened crust from which several erect axes arise. Sporophytes and gametophytes isomorphic. Gametophytes dioecious, spermatangial heads plate-like, on single-celled stalks near branch apices, often with sterile hairs present at base of stalk; cystocarps on adaxial sides of spines, urn-shaped, 0.

Croix, Virgin Islands. This species is widely distributed throughout the tropics into warm temperate seas, in the central eastern and western Atlantic, around the Indian Ocean, and in the central western Pacific. Prior to its introduction to Hawaii, A. The genus Acanthophora is predominantly a tropical genus, but the distribution of some species does extend into warm temperate regions.

Acanthophora muscoides and A. Apart from the occurrence of A. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Doty first reported the Hawaiian presence of this species and suggested that it probably arrived shortly after Considering that A. Doty also observed that older Polynesians in Hawaii had no name for Acanthophora and, when Abbott and Williamson interviewed Hawaiians familiar with seaweeds, they found several who confirmed that they had never seen this species before World War II, giving credence to the speculation that A.

The most likely vector was considered to be the fouled bottom of a ship arriving from the west, and possibly a barge arriving in Pearl Harbour from Guam or the Philippines. The species was found on every island surveyed by Smith et al.

It was most common in intertidal regions and in semi-protected tide-pools. Mature tetrasporophytes and female gametophytes were found on all islands and the species appears to release spores throughout the year, as well as having potential for dispersal by fragmentation. The broad distribution of the species through the islands is also likely to have been facilitated by hull fouling on small boats and other vessels.

Habitat Top of page This species is saxicolous, epiphytic, or epizoic; intertidal and subtidal, or free-floating.

Often a dominant intertidal species on calm shallow reef flats, in tidepools and rocky benches swept by small waves Hawaii Biological Survey, In contrast, these authors found fragment techniques Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats [ISSRs] to reveal highly structured Hawaiian populations with a substantial range of both within- and among-population variation, with individual plants forming discrete clusters corresponding to geographic locality.

The sexual life history of A. The thalli are also easily fragmented by wave action, and fragments have the potential to re-attach after 2 days Kilar and McLachlan, Skelton and South quote an autecological study of A. This was considered to confirm earlier reports Mshigeni, ; Kilar and McLachlan, that reproduction in this species is often predominantly asexual. Across the Hawaiian Islands in a survey, tetrasporophytes and female gametophytes containing mature carpospores were found on all islands except Hawaii Smith et al.

In regular collections between February and late October , no reproduction was visible until the final week of May, after which tetrasporangial plants were present through the remainder of the study.

In a study in Honduras, artificially elevating nitrogen and phosphorus levels increased grazing by herbivores across habitats when compared to controls Boyer et al.

Survival of A. In the Caribbean, Laurencia papillosa is one associated species. In some habitats, A. The relative success of both species is considered to be heavily dependent on the duration and types of habitat disturbance and the ability of each species to maintain space during competition, reproduction, and vegetative growth Smithsonian Marine Station, An association refuge is also reported to sometimes occur when A.

Littler et al. The maximum primary production for A. In the Caribbean, the species has been observed to disappear during mid-winter and this has been used to speculate that it may have a lower temperature limit of However, the wide distribution of the species through the tropics and subtropics suggests a broader temperature tolerance Smithsonian Marine Station, Typical salinities on reefs in the Caribbean where A. The salinity tolerance ranges from 15 to 55 ppt, and the species could be acclimatized from 55 to 15 ppt Kaliaperumal et al.

The species does not survive prolonged exposure to air Russell, Reef fishes and green turtles Chelonia mydas are known to consume A. In Hawaii, it is now a common component in the diets of immature green turtles and is the dominant food source in some regions Russell and Balazs, ; Arthur and Balazs, Feeding preference experiments undertaken in Guam found that the crab Menaethius monoceros preferred A.

In Australia, both wild and captive-bred rabbitfish S iganus fuscescens preferred to consume A. In contrast, in feeding preference experiments undertaken in south-east India, A. Similarly, A. This was considered possibly due to the long thin branches of A. The initial introduction to the Hawaiian Islands was attributed to hull fouling, most likely on a barge arriving in Pearl Harbour from Guam or the Philippines Doty, The species then appears to have radiated in all directions from the initial site of reproduction; locally by the release of spores and fragmentation, and more broadly by hull fouling on small boats and other vessels Smith et al.

Although many algal species were identifiable in faecal pellets, no A. The abundance at some sites has increased total algal biomass and productivity. The competitive balance between Laurencia papillosa and A. Throughout most of the fore-reef zone, L. Stimson et al. In India, culture and utilization of A. Isotope ratios were the most sensitive indicators. Seven species of Acanthophora are recognized: Acanthophora aokii , Acanthophora dendrooides, Acanthophora muscoides, Acanthophora nayadiformis , Acanthophora pacifica , Acanthophora ramulosa and A.

The genus Acanthophora is most similar to the genus Chondria, but differs in the form of the branchlets. Keys to the species of Acanthophora are provided in de Jong et al.

Due to the variable regulations around de registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Populations that are not fully established are considered to have less genetic variation and therefore be less likely to resist control measures such as large-scale removal or introduced herbivores. It is therefore recommended that control measures target locations that have strong potential to recruit new populations through the frequent production and dispersal of propagules.

Exposed reefs, rather than bays, lagoons and tide pools, would be expected to produce and disperse more propagules because of higher wave action, so it is suggested that removal efforts target these sites. Fouling on vessels is considered to be the vector for both the initial introduction of A. Of the invasive macroalgal species introduced to Hawaii, A. Abbott IA, Marine Red Algae of the Hawaiian Islands. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press.

New reported and revised marine algae from the vicinity of Nha Trang, Vietnam. Taxonomy of Economic Seaweeds with reference to some Pacific species [ed. Limu: an ethnobotanical study of some edible Hawaiian seaweeds. Bulletin of the Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, 4 1 Alcantara LB; Noro T, Effects of macroalgal type and water temperature on macroalgal consumption rates of the abalone Haliotis diversicolor Reeve.

Journal of Shellfish Research, 24 4 A comparison of immature green turtles Chelonia mydas diets among seven sites in the main Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Science, 62 2 Elevated nutrient content of tropical macroalgae increases rates of herbivory in coral, seagrass, and mangrove habitats. Coral Reefs, Botanisk Tidsskrift, Mar, Feeding preference and deterrence in rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens for the cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula in Moreton Bay, south-east Queensland, Australia.

Journal of Fish Biology, 68 5 Cribb AB, Seaweeds of Queensland. A Naturalist's Guide. Feeding by coral reef mesograzers: algae or cyanobacteria? Are Acanthophora spicifera blooms in West Maui simply seasonal? Traditional use of seaweed in Vanuatu.

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Copyright notice : the information originating from AlgaeBase may not be downloaded or replicated by any means, without the written permission of the copyright owner generally AlgaeBase. Fair usage of data in scientific publications is permitted. Toggle navigation. WoRMS taxon details. Acanthophora spicifera M. Acanthophora J.

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Acanthophora spicifera

Acanthophora spicifera. Full account PDF. Acanthophora intermedia , Crouan Fucus spicifer , M. Vahl Fucus acanthophorus , J.

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