Applications[ edit ] The kind of lead in lead glass is normally PbO, and PbO is used extensively in making glass. Depending on the glass, the benefit of using PbO in glass can be one or more of increasing the refractive index of the glass, decreasing the viscosity of the glass, increasing the electrical resistivity of the glass, and increasing the ability of the glass to absorb X-rays. Adding PbO to industrial ceramics as well as glass makes the materials more magnetically and electrically inert by raising their Curie temperature and it is often used for this purpose. Other less dominant applications include the vulcanization of rubber and the production of certain pigments and paints.
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Local irritation of bronchia and lungs can occur and, in cases of acute exposure, symptoms such as metallic taste, chest and abdominal pain, and increased lead blood levels may follow. See also Ingestion. The symptoms of lead poisoning include abdominal pain and spasms, nausea, vomiting, headache.
Acute poisoning can lead to muscle weakness, "lead line" on the gums, metallic taste, definite loss of appetite, insomnia, dizziness, high lead levels in blood and urine with shock, coma and death in extreme cases. Skin Contact: Lead and lead compounds may be absorbed through the skin on prolonged exposure; the symptoms of lead poisoning described for ingestion exposure may occur.
Contact over short periods may cause local irritation, redness and pain. Eye Contact: Absorption can occur through eye tissues but the more common hazards are local irritation or abrasion. Chronic Exposure: Lead is a cumulative poison and exposure even to small amounts can raise the body's content to toxic levels.
The symptoms of chronic exposure are like those of ingestion poisoning; restlessness, irritability, visual disturbances, hypertension and gray facial color may also be noted. Aggravation of Pre-existing Conditions: Persons with pre-existing kidney, nerve or circulatory disorders or with skin or eye problems may be more susceptible to the effects of this substance.
First Aid Measures Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention. Ingestion: Induce vomiting immediately as directed by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.
Skin Contact: Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse. Eye Contact: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, lifting lower and upper eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention immediately. Fire Fighting Measures Not considered to be a fire hazard. Explosion: Not considered to be an explosion hazard.
Fire Extinguishing Media: Use any means suitable for extinguishing surrounding fire. Do not allow water runoff to enter sewers or waterways. Special Information: In the event of a fire, wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
Can produce toxic lead fumes at elevated temperatures and also react with oxidizing materials. Accidental Release Measures Ventilate area of leak or spill. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment as specified in Section 8. Spills: Sweep up and containerize for reclamation or disposal. Vacuuming or wet sweeping may be used to avoid dust dispersal. Handling and Storage Keep in a tightly closed container, stored in a cool, dry, ventilated area.
Protect against physical damage. Isolate from incompatible substances. Areas in which exposure to lead metal or lead compounds may occur should be identified by signs or appropriate means, and access to the area should be limited to authorized persons. Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues dust, solids ; observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product.
Local exhaust ventilation is generally preferred because it can control the emissions of the contaminant at its source, preventing dispersion of it into the general work area. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-facepiece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator. Skin Protection: Wear impervious protective clothing, including boots, gloves, lab coat, apron or coveralls, as appropriate, to prevent skin contact.
Maintain eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area. Other Control Measures: Eating, drinking, and smoking should not be permitted in areas where solids or liquids containing lead compounds are handled, processed, or stored.
See OSHA substance-specific standard for more information on personal protective equipment, engineering and work practice controls, medical surveillance, record keeping, and reporting requirements.
Physical and Chemical Properties Appearance: Red or reddish yellow powder.