After introduction of the anticoccidial toltrazuril for the metaphylactic treatment of suckling piglet coccidiosis, only few field evaluations on the effect of treatment against the causative agent, Cystoisospora suis , were performed. In , a field study was conducted to detect the presence of the parasite on pig farms in four different European countries, and to evaluate management parameters possibly associated with infection and disease. Repeated pooled fecal samples from litters were taken in the 2nd and 3rd week of life. Samples were examined by autofluorescence for the presence of C.
|Published (Last):||13 June 2006|
|PDF File Size:||5.76 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||1.96 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
After introduction of the anticoccidial toltrazuril for the metaphylactic treatment of suckling piglet coccidiosis, only few field evaluations on the effect of treatment against the causative agent, Cystoisospora suis , were performed. In , a field study was conducted to detect the presence of the parasite on pig farms in four different European countries, and to evaluate management parameters possibly associated with infection and disease.
Repeated pooled fecal samples from litters were taken in the 2nd and 3rd week of life. Samples were examined by autofluorescence for the presence of C. For each farm a questionnaire was provided to document management and treatment history. Feces scored as diarrhoeic were not significantly more often positive for C. Overall, Diarrhea was seen in samples from Cystoisospora suis was diagnosed on Toltrazuril was applied on 30 farms, and of these Only on two farms a disinfectant with activity against coccidia was used, and C.
Current control of C. These findings highlight the importance of correct application of medication, and an effective hygiene management. To maintain effective parasite control, efficacy monitoring of the control measures should be implemented. Cystoisospora suis C. Piglets become infected by oral uptake of sporulated oocysts. Sporozoites are released from these oocysts and penetrate epithelial cells of the small intestine, replicate, and progressively destroy intestinal cells.
This leads to intestinal lesions including villous necrosis, atrophy and fusion, and frequently results in non-haemorrhagic diarrhea. Generally, morbidity is high while mortality is low 7.
However, piglet health can significantly deteriorate by bacterial or viral co-infections 8 — As piglets that suffered from cystoisosporosis often show failure to thrive, the infection can result in marked production losses 11 — The disease tends to take a more serious course in very young piglets while age resistance results in mostly subclinical infections in weaned animals [as reviewed in 14 ]. To prevent early exposure of piglets to the parasite, reduction or inactivation of infectious oocysts is key to the control of cystoisosporosis.
Efficient hygiene strategies include steam-cleaning and the application of a disinfectant with anticoccidial efficacy On pig farms where Cystoisospora -related diarrhea occurs, metaphylactic treatment with the coccidiocidal drug toltrazuril is recommended. It has been shown to be efficient in several laboratory and field studies and can thus enhance animal welfare as well as farm productivity 13 , 16 — Toltrazuril is now frequently used to control piglet cystoisosporosis in Europe This highlights the importance of correct diagnosis of the presence of C.
With this study we aimed to investigate the occurrence of C. Also we hypothesized that diarrhea occurred more often on farms where C. A non-randomized cross-sectional field study was performed. The aim was to evaluate infection rates on swine farms with different management conditions in four European countries.
With this we wanted to receive an updated insight in possible influencing variables. Of particular interest was the effect of toltrazuril treatment. In , we investigated 49 farms from four different countries, 7 from Austria, 17 from the Czech Republic, 7 from Germany and 18 from Spain.
These farms were selected arbitrarily. To increase sensitivity each litter was sampled twice in one-week intervals due to the short periods of oocyst excretions In 19 farms this minimum number of litters could not be sampled, in eight of these all litters were negative.
As on these eight farms infection might have been missed, they were excluded from statistical analysis. In total 6—63 litters per farm were included. Each sample was mixed well and aliquots of ca. Samples were considered positive when at least one oocyst could be detected.
Differentiation between Cystoisospora suis and Eimeria spp. In the laboratory of the Institute of Parasitology, fecal consistency was scored from 1 to 4 as described 21 and fecal scores 3 and 4 were considered as diarrhea. For each farm a questionnaire was provided for information on farm structure, management, and medication of piglets during the suckling period as well as previous records of diarrhea Data sheet 1.
This questionnaire was completed by the farm-veterinarian. Questions and response rates are shown in Table 1. Table 1. Topics addressed in the farm questionnaire and analyzed with regard to infections with Cystoisospora suis and diarrhea dependent variables. As management parameters were collected per farm, most analyses were performed on farm level. An association between diarrhea and C. Fecal score and C. In Austria, only farms with a maximum of sows were examined, while in the other countries also farms with more than 2, sows were included Table 2.
Not all of those farms answered the questionnaire regarding their farming system Table 1. Of the 49 farms 28 The remaining farms also kept fatteners, and this was the case for With regard to the numbers of sows per farm, medium sized farms 1,—1, sows most often only had nurseries Figure 1. Figure 1. Number of nursery farms vs. As litters were examined twice a total of 1, fecal samples were available, Diarrhea fecal score 3 or 4 was observed in 5.
When comparing fecal scores in relation to the grade of C. Overall, we examined litters from 49 farms mean For the further analysis no distinction was made between litters tested positive once or twice. In total 35 farms were positive for C. Thus, The total number of litters that were tested positive for C. A farm was considered positive when at least one litter was positive as defined above.
The prevalence on the farms varied greatly from 0. Number of litters tested per farm and the proportion of C. Figure 2. Fecal score in relation to excretion intensity with Cystoisospora suis. Anamnestic information on diarrhea was available for litters from 24 farms, and Of the litters with an anamnesis of diarrhea, Diarrhea was detected by scoring of the fecal samples in 9. Farm prevalences for diarrhea ranged between 0. On the farm level, When eight farms with an insufficient sample size negative for C.
In the questionnaire, 26 of 43 farms reported a general problem with diarrhea. Of these Farms from Germany had the lowest farm-related rate for C.
Farms from Spain were also those with the highest on-farm-prevalence; on two thirds of these farms more than half of the litters were positive for C. Regarding the occurrence of C. Figure 3. Cystoisospora suis -positive and negative litters by autofluorescence per individual farm.
Thirty farms administered toltrazuril to their piglets according to the questionnaire. On In the 19 farms that did not use toltrazuril, C. Twenty-six farms provided information about the age of the piglets upon toltrazuril application.
For several farms, a range of time points was listed. Seven farms treated in an overlapping range between early and late time points. This difference was even more obvious when the farms with insufficient sample sizes that were negative for C. Oocysts were detected in Diarrhea was present in Except for two 4. Only two farms applied cresol-based disinfectants listed as effective against coccidia.
On these farms no oocysts were detected. With an occurrence of C. However, a direct comparison of infection rates between studies must be interpreted with caution due to non-representative sampling and different diagnostic methods with different sensitivities 20 ,
Life Cycle of Isospora Suis in Gnotobiotic and Conventionalized Piglets
Coccidian parasites are of major importance in animal production, public health and food safety. The most frequently used representative in basic research on this group is Toxoplasma gondii. Although this parasite is well investigated there is no adequate in vitro model for its sexual development available and knowledge on this important life cycle phase is therefore scarce. The use of Isospora suis , a sister taxon to T. In the present study an in vitro model for neonatal porcine coccidiosis in cells representative for the in vivo situation in the piglet gut was developed and evaluated.
Isospora suis had 3 asexual and 1 sexual intra-intestinal conventional life cycle. The first asexual generation was most prominent at 2 days p. The second-generation meronts were prevalent at days p. At days p. Mature sexual stages were most prominent at days p. The stages were most numerous in the distal half of the small intestine. This was reflected in a prepatent period of 5 days and a biphasic patent period of or 9, and days p.
There are many different species of Isospora , all of which are host specific. The most commonly seen of all the Isospora species is Isospora suis in the pig. The eggs are subspherical, and the wall is colourless and thin. When sporulated each one contains two sporocyts each with four sporozoites. There are essentially three stages in the Isospora life cycle.