|Published (Last):||22 July 2018|
|PDF File Size:||6.91 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||4.51 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Eurygaster integriceps attacks wheat from April until harvest.
All parts of the plant are attacked. The overwintering adults, installed in the crop at the end of March or in early April, feed exclusively on vegetative plant organs from spring start up to flowering. The new generation nymphs and young adults feed only on the grain within the ear. The overwintering adults mainly feed on the zone of growth cone position, showing clear organotropicity Shapiro and Vilcova, In the spring, the leaves and stem base are attacked.
As a result, the leaf zone above the eating level dries, while the central leaf and the stem, yellow and dry. After stalk shooting, E. If the stalk is in a more advanced vegetative phase when it is attacked, damage will occur above the last internode, as well as during ear formation, causing yellowing, drying boot and ear abortion. When the ear emerges from the boot it is sterile and white. If the attack occurs after booting, the ear can be totally or partially aborted, depending on the location of the damage, at the ear base or within it.
The appearance of attacked ears is characteristic. They are sterile, white and have rigid, diffuse awns. After flowering, the overwintering adults of E. If the plant ovaries are attacked before or shortly after fecundation they are destroyed and the grain ceases formation. Attacks on grains in the early phases of formation result in grain shrivelling.
Grain attacked in a more advanced ripening phase does not shrivel, but the site of attack is marked by a black point in the centre of a discoloured spot, with yellow-whitish marks. Introduction Wheat requires protection from this dangerous pest Fedotov, ; Paikin, ; Lazarov et al.
Cultural Control Cultural practices can protect wheat to a small extent from Eurygaster integriceps. A well tillered crop, uniform, advanced in vegetation as a result of sowing at the optimum time, in a fertile, well worked soil is in the best position to withstand attack by E. Early harvesting can confine the attack and reduce feeding conditions leading to higher mortality of E.
However, good cultural methods cannot prevent intensive outbreaks. Biological Control The first method of biological control used against E. In the s, in the USSR, millions of parasites were released annually. In Iran, in , 21 million oophagous parasites were released Vaezi, ; Vodjdani, Overwintering adults were collected and the parasitoids reared on their eggs which were subsequently released into the wheat crop Zomorrodi, ; Telenga, ; Safavi, ; Gusev, ; Gusev and Shmettser, ; Novozhilov and Shumakov, ; Kartsev, ; Radjabi and Amir-Nazari, ; Voegele, After , interest in this method decreased owing to the high costs and the development of insecticides Paikin, ; Lazarov et al.
Parasitization of E. Investigations are currently underway to integrate chemical and cultural methods to protect the natural oophagous fauna Kamencova, ; Kartsev, ; Areshnikov et al. Chemical Control Due to the variable regulations around de- registration of pesticides, we are for the moment not including any specific chemical control recommendations.
The earliest evidence of damage caused to wheat crops by Eurygaster integriceps is in the first millennium, at the time of Harun-al-Rashid Safavi, In the eighteenth century, Nedershah burnt the vegetation on the Persian mountains in an effort to eliminate the insect Vodjdani, The impact of E. The damage caused by the overwintering adults is quantitative. It leads to destruction of the plant before earing or abortion of the spikes due to injection in the boot stage or before flowering.
In years when spring is dry and warm, an attack by only a few adults per square metre can lead to important losses. Grain spoilage following E. Enzymes excreted by E. The gluten is spoiled, changing its composition and leading to loss of its most valuable properties, such as extensibility.
The gluten becomes soft and gluey making the dough difficult to handle. Pest Management Decision Guides Dari. Pest Management Decision Guides English. Plantwise Factsheets for Farmers Dari. Plantwise Factsheets for Farmers English.
External factsheets Pashto. Cookies on Plantwise Knowledge Bank. Close Find out more. Species Page. On this page:. Related treatment support. Prevention and control. For information on how to access the CPC, click here. Distribution You can pan and zoom the map. Unsupported Web Browser: One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Avena sativa oats. Bromus bromegrasses. Crotalaria juncea sunn hemp. Dactylis orchardgrass. Festuca fescues. Hordeum vulgare barley. Lolium ryegrasses. Poa meadow grass. Poaceae grasses. Secale cereale rye. Setaria Foxtailmillet. Sorghum bicolor sorghum. Triticum wheat. Triticum aestivum wheat. Triticum turgidum durum wheat. Inflorescence - discoloration panicle. Inflorescence - twisting and distortion.
Leaves - yellowed or dead. Seeds - discolorations. Seeds - empty grains. Seeds - shrivelled. Stems - dead heart. Stems - internal discoloration. Whole plant - dead heart. Whole plant - plant dead; dieback. Sunn pest on wheat-Afghanistan Usmankhil, H.
Sunn pest of wheat. Samadi, A. Sunn pest. Show more factsheet.
Eurygaster integriceps is a species of shield bug in the family Scutelleridae , commonly known as the sunn pest or corn bug. It is native to much of northern Africa, the Balkans and western and central Asia. It is a major pest of cereal crops especially wheat , barley and oats. The colour of the sunn pest varies but it is usually light brown.
List of symptoms / signs
Hemiptera, Scutelleridae ". Written Paper. Literature review of sunn pest Eurygaster integriceps Put. Lookup at Google Scholar.
EPPO Global Database