Pyroelectricity from the two Greek words pyr meaning fire, and electricity is a property of certain crystals which are naturally electrically polarized and as a result contain large electric fields. This polarization change gives rise to a voltage across the crystal. If the temperature stays constant at its new value, the pyroelectric voltage gradually disappears due to leakage current. The leakage can be due to electrons moving through the crystal, ions moving through the air, or current leaking through a voltmeter attached across the crystal. Pyroelectricity can be visualized as one side of a triangle,  where each corner represents energy states in the crystal: kinetic , electrical and thermal energies.
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The Pockels effect after Friedrich Carl Alwin Pockels who studied the effect in , or Pockels electro-optic effect, changes or produces birefringence in an optical medium induced by an electric field. In the Pockels effect, also known as the linear electro-optic effect, the birefringence is proportional to the electric field. In the Kerr effect , the refractive index change birefringence is proportional to the square of the field. The Pockels effect occurs only in crystals that lack inversion symmetry , such as lithium niobate , and in other noncentrosymmetric media such as electric-field poled polymers or glasses. Pockels cells are voltage-controlled wave plates. The Pockels effect is the basis of the operation of Pockels cells. Pockels cells may be used to rotate the polarization of a beam that passes through.