Diachasmimorpha longicaudata is a solitary species of parasitoid wasp and an endoparasitoid of tephritid fruit fly larvae. It is now considered the most extensively used parasitoid for biocontrol of fruit flies in both the southern portion of the United States and Latin America. This has resulted in quarantines on grapefruit shipped internationally as well as domestically. It is likely multiple biological species separated by both reproductive isolation and morphological characteristics such as wing geometry. Diachasmimorpha longicaudata originated in the Indo-pacific region of Asia.
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Diachasmimorpha formerly Biosteres or Opius longicaudata Ashmead Wharton is a solitary braconid wasp parasitoid of Caribbean fruit fly , Anastrepha suspensa Loew , larvae. The Caribbean fruit fly belongs to a group of major fruit pests that occur in the New World tropics and subtropics. Caribbean fruit flies, which infest more than 80 species of fruit, were accidently introduced into southern Florida in This has raised concern because the fly will oviposit in very ripe citrus fruits, threatening foreign markets in countries where the fly has not been detected.
It resulted in establishment of quarantines on fruit shipped to Japan, as well as on interstate shipments to Arizona, California, Hawaii and Texas. Fruit must be fumigated, undergo cold treatment, or be shipped from protocol areas fly-free or bait-sprayed. The ban of methyl bromide, the high cost of cold treatment, and the growing concern for avoiding environmental damage from pesticides, led to more emphasis on biological control.
It is now established Baranowski Figure 1. Adult female Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead , a braconid endoparasitic wasp that parasitizes the Caribbean fruit fly, ovipositing into a fly larva.
The body is reddish-brown, with brown eyes. The antennae are longer than the body, shading to black from the fourth segment outward. Wings are clear. The gaster of the female often has a dorsal central black band. The gaster of the male often has dark brown to black dorsal posterior segments.
The ovipositor is black-tipped and longer than the female's entire body. This species can be separated from related species using the key of Wharton and Marsh It has been shown that rotting fruit is attractive with or without the presence of host larvae, and the attractant has been attributed to fungal fermentation products rather than to chemical substances produced by the fly larvae Greany et al.
Having found rotting fruit, the female parasite can detect the larvae by sound. The female lays 13 to 24 eggs per day Lawrence et al. Figure 2.
Adult female Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead , a braconid endoparasitic wasp that parasitizes the Caribbean fruit fly, ovipositing into fly larvae in guava. The eggs hatch in two to five days and progress through four larval instars, emerging as adult wasps from the fly puparia Lawrence et al.
Eggs laid as the female ages are more likely to be female Ashley and Chambers Research has shown that oviposition experience increases parasitization, and that the more hosts they are given, the more progeny the parasites produce Ashley and Chambers , Lawrence et al.
The parasites are also quite tolerant of various handling procedures such as chilling, anesthesia and aspiration Greany et al. Releases were made by Baranowski in the fall of Baranowski With the cooperation of the public, thousands of wasp releases were made during the next five years and Division of Plant Industry trapping data indicated a 40 percent reduction in the Caribbean fruit fly population compared to trap catches before the releases Baranowski Although this classical biological control technique is effective in reducing Caribbean fruit fly populations, it is not an eradication technique.
Sterile male releases, usually preceded by bait sprays, have led to eradication or control of several species of tephritids around the world. However, bait sprays have met with public opposition because of possible property or environmental damage. Mass parasite releases would further suppress the wild fly population while posing no threat to property or the environment.
Selected References Back to Top Anonymous. Controlling the Caribbean fruit fly in Florida. Effects of parasite density and host availability on progeny production by Biosteres Opius longicaudatus Hym.
Entomophaga Adult emergence in Biosteres Opius longicaudatus and Anastrepha suspensa in relation to the temperature and moisture concentration of the pupation medium. Florida Entomologist Baranowski RM.
Wasps sting flies, Fruit fly parasites and their activities in Hawaii. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society Rearing and life history studies on Biosteres Opius longicaudatus Hym: Braconidae.
Chemically mediated host finding by Biosteres Opius longicaudatus. A parasitoid tephritid fruit fly larvae. Journal of Chemical Ecology 3: Lawrence PO. Host vibrations cue to host location by the parasite, Biosteres longicaudatus. Oecologia Effect of host age on development of Biosteres Opius longicaudatus , a parasitoid of the Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa. Oviposition behavior of Biosteres longicaudatus , a parasite of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa.
Annals of the Entomological Society of America Wharton RA. Changes in nomenclature and classification of some opiine braconidae Hymenoptera.
Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington Journal of the Washington Academy of Science
We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. Cohorts of mass-reared, naive Diachasmimorpha longicaudata , parasitoids of tephritid fruit flies, were released in a laminar airflow wind tunnel to study their responses to visual and olfactory stimuli associated with their host habitat. Parasitoids were five times more likely to land on yellow plastic spheres emitting the odor of ripe, guava fruit Psidium guajava L. The rate of landing was not modified by the presence of green artificial leaves adjacent to the spheres in the tunnel or by the inclusion of green leaf volatiles emanating with the guava odors.
Does Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Hymenoptera: Braconidae have a preferential instar to parasitize Tephritidae Diptera? Roberta A. Simone M. Luiza R. Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead, is a koinobiont parasitoid of Tephritidae larvae, the third instar larvae of which is considered preferential, but it is able to parasitize other larval stages and compete with native parasitoids. This study investigated the preference and parasitism capacity of D.