DEFINISI BIOREMEDIASI PDF

Bi di i k t Bioremediasi merupakan suatu usaha penghancuran atau i k d li b h mengurangi kandungan limbah berbahaya secara biologis pada l t k t i i areal yang terkontaminasi Bioremediation Bioremediation is the use of biological treatment systems to destroy or reduce the concentration of hazardous wastes froma contaminated site. Bioremediation is the intentional use of biodegradation process to eliminate environmental pollutants fromcontaminated sites pollutants from contaminated sites. Bioremediation technologies use the physiological potential of microorganisms to eliminate i t l t i t environmental contaminants. Berkenaan dengan lokasi proses secara Berkenaan dengan lokasi, proses secara mikrobia dapat menghancurkan kontaminan in-situ, sedangkan cemaran ditemukan di l it di b h lapangan ex-situ , dimana bahan pencemar harus dibawa dari lapangan ke bioreaktor untuk diolah.

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Bi di i k t Bioremediasi merupakan suatu usaha penghancuran atau i k d li b h mengurangi kandungan limbah berbahaya secara biologis pada l t k t i i areal yang terkontaminasi Bioremediation Bioremediation is the use of biological treatment systems to destroy or reduce the concentration of hazardous wastes froma contaminated site.

Bioremediation is the intentional use of biodegradation process to eliminate environmental pollutants fromcontaminated sites pollutants from contaminated sites. Bioremediation technologies use the physiological potential of microorganisms to eliminate i t l t i t environmental contaminants. Berkenaan dengan lokasi proses secara Berkenaan dengan lokasi, proses secara mikrobia dapat menghancurkan kontaminan in-situ, sedangkan cemaran ditemukan di l it di b h lapangan ex-situ , dimana bahan pencemar harus dibawa dari lapangan ke bioreaktor untuk diolah.

Intrinsic Bioremediation Intrinsic bioremediation tergantung kepada kemampuan mikroorganisme alami dalam melaksanakan proses perombakan tanpa melaksanakan proses perombakan tanpa penambahan nutrisi atau mikroba lain. Agar Intrinsic Bioremediation berjalan effektif maka kecepatan perombakan kontaminan dalamtanah kecepatan perombakan kontaminan dalam tanah haruslah lebih cepat dibandingkan pergerakan bahan tersebut dalam tanah.

Kecepatan relatif perombakan bahan dalamtanah dalamhal ini ditentukan oleh bahan dalam tanah dalam hal ini ditentukan oleh jenis bahan, komunitas mikrobia, dan kondisi hidrogeokimia lahan terkontaminasi. Engineered Bioremediation Engineered Bioremediation EB EB dapat mempercepat intrinsic bioremediation atau sepenuhnya menggantikannya melalui modifikasi prosedur seperti penggalian, manipulasi hidrologis, prosedur seperti penggalian, manipulasi hidrologis, dan instalasi bioreaktor.

EB sangat cocok untuk digunakan pada bahan polutan yang tidak menguap dan sedikit larut polutan yang tidak menguap dan sedikit larut. Ada berbagai alasan mengapa EB lebih disukai dibandingkan dengan Intrinsic bioremediation d l kt d bi t k ti dengan alasan waktu dan biaya serta kepastian.

Assessment of Bioremediation Assessment of Bioremediation Strategies Cek karakteristik yang tidak diinginkan seperti toksisitas dan kemungkinan dapat dirombak oleh mikroorganisme.

J ika hal tersebut ditemukan maka mikroorganisme. J ika hal tersebut ditemukan maka bioremediasi dapat dikerjakan. Cek apakah perombakan dapat berlangsung tanpa penambahan oksigen penambahan oksigen. Cek apakah polutan kontaminan tersedia sebagai subtrat aerobik. Cek apakah polutan kontaminan merupakan subtrat bagi pertumbuhan. J ika tidak penambahan co-sbstrat dibutuhkan. It could be ex-situ or in-situ. Biofilters: Use of microbial stripping columns to treat Biofilters: Use of microbial stripping columns to treat air emission.

Biostimulation: Stimulation of indigenous microbial l ti i il t b d i it population in soils or water, maybe done in ex-situ or in-situ. Soil slurry reactor: Biodegradation in a container or reactor. It could be used to treat soil slurry or liquid. Composting: Aerobic thermophilic treatment process in which contaminated material is mixed with a bulking agent; can be done using static piles aerated bulking agent; can be done using static piles, aerated piles or continuously fed piles.

Land farming: Solid-phase treatment system for t i t d il b d i it it i contaminated soils: may be done in-situ or ex-situ in a constructed cell. This technology is generally considered when significant levels of ground water contamination exist.

Biofluffing: Augering soil to increase porosity. Biopile: An engineered pile of excavated contaminated soil with engineering to optimize air contaminated soil with engineering to optimize air, water, and nutrient control.

Phytoremediation: Use of plants to remove Phytoremediation: Use of plants to remove and accumulate contaminants from soil or water to harvestable biomass. Aquifer Sparging: Injection of air into a contaminated aquifer to stimulate aerobic degradation: may also stimulate volatilization degradation: may also stimulate volatilization. It is a very slow degradation process. Treatment train system: Combination of two Treatment train system: Combination of two or more bioremediation methods. It could be a physical method and a biological method or h i l th d ith bi l i l th d a chemical method with a biological method or two different biological methods in sequence.

This is successful in for anaerobic degradation. This is successful in places where it is difficult to establish and maintain aerobic conditions in some ground water sites. Marine Oil Spills Marine oil spills are major pollution events that can have a dramatic impact p on coastal ecosystems. The best approach to open water oil The best approach to open water oil spill is intrinsic passive bioremediation. The best we can do is spray nitrogen The best we can do is spray nitrogen fertilizer and monitor chemical concentration concentration.

Coastal Oil Spills The coastal oil spill is often dealt by biostimulation method. Nutrient supplements such as supply of oxygen and nitrogen are essential oxygen and nitrogen are essential. Most common nutrients that are lacking in the coastal water is nitrogen and phosphorous. Oleophilic Fertilizer Oleophilic fertilizer is effective because they are retained in oil and not diluted by tidal fluxes. This is a microemulsion of urea in brine encapsulated in oleic acid and lauryl phosphate.

Thi t i l d f l f This was extensively used for clean up of Exxon Valdez Alaskan Oil spill. This fertilizer formulation is very effective for rocky shorelines but t th t ff ti i d b h not that effective in sandy beaches.

Limitation of Bioremediation Microbial: Not enough microbes available. Environmental: Lack of nutrients and f i hibit diti presence of inhibitory conditions. Toxicity: Contaminant is too toxic.

Bi il bilit C t i t i t t Bioavailability: Contaminant is not water soluble. Mass Transfer Limitations: Diffusion of Mass Transfer Limitations: Diffusion of nutrients is difficult in some sites due to the presence of clay and other barriers. Limitation of Bioremediation Ability to meet time line.

Ability to conformspace limitation Ability to conform space limitation. Regulations: GEMS are not allowed. Thi i ltidi i li fi ld d t This is a multidisciplinary field and most of the training is acquired on the job.

Advantages of Bioremediation Can be done on site Keeps site disruption to a minimum Eliminates transportation costs and liabilities Eliminates waste permanently Eli i t l t li bilit Eliminates long-term liability Biological systems are often less expensive Can be coupled with other treatment methods into a Can be coupled with other treatment methods into a treatment train.

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Hewan penyaring filter feeder adalah hewan yang memakan partikel dan materi organik dan makhluk hidup yang tersuspensi di air, umumnya dengan melewatkan air ke struktur penyaring yang dimiliki hewan tersebut. Beberapa menggunakan metode penghisapan misal kerang , ubur-ubur , flamingo , bebek , lainnya diam secara pasif dan memanfaatkan arus air yang ada misal porifera , dan yang lainnya harus bergerak agar air masuk ke dalam tubuh misal paus. Hewan penyaring memiliki peran penting di dalam ekosistem karena membersihkan air dari partikel tersuspensi dan menjaga air tetap jernih, tetapi mereka sangat rentan terhadap pencemaran. Spons porifera tidak memiliki sistem sirkulasi yang sejati melainkan arus air laut yang tercipta melalui aliran di rongga tubuhnya.

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Akurasi Terperiksa. Limbah minyak adalah buangan yang berasal dari hasil eksplorasi produksi minyak , pemeliharaan fasilitas produksi , fasilitas penyimpanan, pemrosesan, dan tangki penyimpanan minyak pada kapal laut. Pada umumnya, pengeboran minyak bumi di laut menyebabkan terjadinya peledakan blow aut di sumur minyak. Tumpahan minyak di laut berasal dari kecelakaan kapal tanker. Akibat yang ditimbulkan dari terjadinya pencemaran minyak bumi di laut adalah: [5].

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