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Skew and curvature;. Resistance of the joints to movements;. Approach pavement growth;. Substructure movements due to embankmen t construction;. Foundation movements associated with the consolidation and stabilization of subsoils;. Structural restraints; and. Static and dynamic structural responses and thei r interaction.
For a curved superstructure that is laterally unrestrained by guided bearings, the direction o f longitudinal movement at a bearing joint may be assume d to be parallel to the chord of the deck centerline taken from the joint to the neutral point of the structure.
The potential for unaligned longitudinal and rotational movement of the superstructure at a joint should be considered in designing the vertical joints in curbs an d raised barriers and in determining the appropriate position and orientation of closure or bridging plates.
The moving surfaces of the joint shall be designed to work in concert with the bearings to avoid binding the j oints and adversely affecting force effects imposed on bearings. The materials shall be selected so as to ensure tha t they are elastically, thermally, and chemically compatible.
Where substantial differences exist, material interfaces shall be formulated to provide fully functional systems. Materials, other than elastomers, should have a service. Joints exposed to traffic should have a skid-resistan t surface treatment, and all parts shall be resistant to attrition and vehicular impact. Except for high-strength bolts, fasteners for joints exposed to deicing chemicals shall be made of stainless steel.
Any horizontal movement of a bridge superstructure will be opposed by the resistance of bridge bearings to movement and the rigidity or flexural resistance o f substructure elements. The ro lling resistance of rocker and rollers, the shear resistance of elastomeric bearings, or the frictional resistance of bearing sliding surfaces will oppose movement. In addition, the rigidity of abutments and the relative flexibility of piers of various heights an d foundation types will affect the magnitude of bearing movement and the bearing forces opposing movement.
Rigid approach pavements composed of cobblestone, b rick, or jointed concrete will experience growth o r substantial longitudinal pressure due to restrained growth. To protect bridge structures from these potentially destructive pressures and to preserve the movement range of deck joints and the performance of joint seals, eithe r effective pavement pressure relief joints or pavemen t anchors should be provided in approach pavements, as described in Transportation Research Record When horizontal movement at the ends of a superstructure are due to volumetric changes, the forces generated within the structure in resistance to these changes are balanced.
The neutral point can be located by estimating these forces, taking into account the relative resistance of bearings and substructures to movement. The length of superstructure contributing to movement at a particular joint can then be determined. For square or slightly skewed bridge layouts, moderate roadway grades at the joint and minimu m changes in both horizontal and vertical joint alignmen t may be preferred in order to simplify the movements o f j oints and to enhance the performance of the structure.
Preference should be given to those materials that are least sensitive to field compounding and installation variables and to those that can be repaired and altered by nonspecialized maintenance forces. Preference should also be given to those components and devices that will likely. All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law. Learn more about Scribd Membership Home. Much more than documents.
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Skew and curvature;. Resistance of the joints to movements;. Approach pavement growth;. Substructure movements due to embankmen t construction;.
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, SI Units, 4th Edition
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications - Inti