MACONELLICOCCUS HIRSUTUS PDF

It occurs as far north as Lebanon, so there is no reason why it should not be able to colonize the southern USA, southern Europe and parts of the Middle East where it is not yet known for example, Israel. Green's description included material from Tasmania, but this is now regarded as a separate species, M. Barthelemy, Guadeloupe Etienne et al. An erroneous record for Algeria in Ben-Dov was based on a misinterpretation of Balachowsky , which mentioned the threat to Algeria posed by M.

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Juang-Horng Chong, Luis F. Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is an invasive pest of horticultural and agricultural crops worldwide, with recent range expansion in the Americas and the Caribbean. Current populations of M. The rapid proliferation of this pest and its ability to severely impact many horticultural crops, particularly ornamental plants such as hibiscus, necessitate correct diagnosis and response to infestations.

This article summarizes the current state of knowledge on M. We discuss seasonal phenology, host range, damage characteristics, ecology, and monitoring strategies on ornamental plants. Insecticides remain the main management tools against M. Biological control is the preferred management strategy in reducing infestation in urban landscapes.

We note that inappropriate use of insecticides in landscapes may exacerbate problems with this pest, and that preferred responses should include assessment of biological control potential and economic or aesthetic thresholds of affected host plants. Information presented in this profile will help develop integrated management program for current and future invasions.

Originally described from India, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae commonly known as the pink hibiscus mealybug is highly polyphagous, having achieved pest status on hibiscus Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.

Similar to many phloem-feeding insects, M. Indirect damage associated with M. A Honeydew secreted by the mealybugs. B Sooty mold associated with the honeydew production.

Photo credits Luis F. Direct damage associated with M. A Feeding by the mealybugs often produce bunchy top symptom. B Infested bunchy top and other plant terminals often contain a large number of mealybugs, white waxy deposits, and chlorotic leaves.

Accidental introductions of M. Although Guyana did not suffer direct crop losses, the loss of trade in regional export markets was considerable. By comparison, infestation in Puerto Rico was under successful biological control, which led to reduced crop injury and avoided significant economic losses Michaud The potential economic impact of M.

A more recent estimate projected the annual damage to avocado Persea americana Mill. Outside of North America, M. In areas where M. In commercial nurseries, insecticides are often used because M. In urban landscapes where biological control tactics are preferred, the goal is to preserve natural enemies that reduce the mealybug population and damage below the acceptable levels. Here, we summarize current knowledge on the geographical distribution, pest status, biology, and integrated management strategies of M.

The center of Maconellicoccus speciation appears to be southern Asia, where many endemic species of the genus occur Williams , From its center of origin, M. Currently, M. Distribution of M. Countries invaded before the year or where the date of invasion was not reported are colored green, whereas countries invaded in or after the year are colored orange.

In the United States, M. The first U. Prediction of potential distribution of M. Predictive maps can match climatic conditions required for the establishment of M. Based on climate mapping, M. Our ability to accurately predict the distribution of M. The spread of M. However, the pattern of M. Infested plant materials might have introduced M. In Florida, regulatory programs restricting shipment of potentially infested plants were initiated in in an attempt to prevent further spread.

Despite these efforts, infested plant materials were subsequently detected in retail outlets in Georgia in Horton and South Carolina in Chong Over plant species are reported as hosts for M. Despite the broad reported host range, the number of plant species suitable for M.

Kitts, many were incidental hosts on which wind-dispersed crawlers could establish and induce injury symptoms but were unable to reproduce McComie The discrepancy between reported and viable host range, as well as the existence of host specialization, should be taken into consideration when formulating long-term management programs and estimating economic losses.

However, such factors have not been considered in previous works. Ornamental host plants of M. In some hosts, such as hibiscus, bunchy top deformation is often the first symptom detected. The bunchy top injury is permanent, and removal of mealybugs will not restore damaged plant tissues.

However, if mealybugs are eliminated, new terminals develop normally. When the mealybug population is large, the deformed leaves, flowers, and fruits are often aborted prematurely and heavy wax deposits and numerous ovisacs may envelope the distorted terminals Fig. Honeydew and black sooty mold accumulation also occur. Hibiscus cultivars differ in their tendency to develop the bunchy top symptom. Because M. Field identification of M. Miller provided keys to separate major mealybug species in the southern United States, and Miller provided descriptions for microscopic identification of nymphal instars and adult of M.

Eggs are initially orange, but turn pink before hatching. Life stages of M. A An ovisac and the exposed eggs harbored within. B Crawlers. C Female third instar. D Adult female.

E Male third instar. F Adult male. First instars crawlers are pink, oval in shape with well-defined legs and antennae and lack the waxy body coating Fig. Later instars turn grey—pink and start to secrete white wax that covers their bodies. Females develop through three instars Fig. Both the third and fourth instars are wrapped in tests resembling tubes made up of tightly woven wax filaments. Developmental progress can be determined by the number of exuviae pushed to the end of the tests.

Crawlers average 0. Body is greyish pink and covered with a thin white cotton like wax. Posterior tufts of cotton-like waxy deposits are often present. Males are fragile looking and weak flyers, only live a day or two, and are not commonly observed in nature. The pink-colored body fluid that appears when the both immature and adult M. Unlike other common mealybug species that sometimes have a pinkish coloration such as the citrus mealybug [ Planococcus citri Risso ], the grape mealybug [ Pseudococcus maritimus Ehrhorn ], the obscure mealybug [ Pseudococcus viburni Signoret ] and the pineapple mealybug [ Dysmicoccus brevipes Cockerell ] Fig.

Females of the latter are rounded and may be completely covered by the ovisac, whereas female M. Moreover, the host range of H. Mealybugs that resemble M. A Planococcus citri. B Pseudococcus maritimus. C Pseudococcus viburni. D Dysmicoccus brevipes. E Hypogeococcus pungens and F M. Photo credits Lyle Buss, University of Florida. Pheromone traps with suspected adult males should be wrapped in clear plastic film or other method prescribed by the diagnostic services before shipment.

The date, host, and location should be noted and the samples sent to specialists for identification. Reports of M. Development, survivorship, and reproduction of M.

For eggs, the lower and upper threshold and the optimal developmental temperatures were estimated at The development of a female from egg to adulthood and from hatching to death required cumulative thermal units of and DDC, respectively. The thermal requirement for egg to adulthood development of males was DDC. Data on developmental thresholds and thermal requirements have been used to predict the distribution of M.

Some earlier works reported parthenogenetic Singh and Ghosh or a mix of sexual and parthenogenetic reproduction in M. Life table analyses suggested that M. The low tolerance for damage by M.

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Maconellicoccus hirsutus

It attacks more than kinds of plants, including beans, chrysanthemum, citrus, coconut, coffee, cotton, corn, croton, cucumber, grape, guava, hibiscus, peanuts, pumpkin, rose, and mulberry. This pest is presently established in central and northern Africa, India, Pakistan, northern Australia, and southeastern Asia. But it has recently arrived in tropical areas in the Western Hemisphere. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix in the U. Martin, St.

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Juang-Horng Chong, Luis F. Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is an invasive pest of horticultural and agricultural crops worldwide, with recent range expansion in the Americas and the Caribbean. Current populations of M. The rapid proliferation of this pest and its ability to severely impact many horticultural crops, particularly ornamental plants such as hibiscus, necessitate correct diagnosis and response to infestations.

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Maconellicoccus hirsutus , also known as the pink , grape or hibiscus mealybug is a pest of many plants, trees, and shrubs. It infests hibiscus , citrus , coffee , sugar cane , annonas , plums , guava , mango although, mango mealybug is more problematic , okra , sorrel , teak , mora, pigeon pea , peanut , grapevine , maize , asparagus , chrysanthemum , beans , cotton , soybean , cocoa , and many other plants. The pest forms colonies on the host plant, and if left undisturbed, the colonies will grow into large masses of white waxy coverings on branches, fruiting structures, leaves, and even whole plants, including large trees. Female bodies are pink in color with a white waxy covering. They are wingless and appear as ovoid shapes covered by a mass of white mealy wax.

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