The Menderes Period The period from to may be examined in several ways related to modern Turkish history. In this period, which is called Democrat Party or the Menderes decade, there were three general elections in , and As a result of these elections during this time, Adnan Menderes formed the government five times as the Prime Minister. In this study, the Menderes era will be considered under the following titles: the development of Democracy, the economical growth and the changes in the domestic and foreign policies.
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Yazan: S. When his first 45 RPM vinyl record began turning, the calendars showed the date of His name is Bulent Ortacgil, aka Urban Poet…. Urban culture, which means in the literature that people or organizational structures living in cities adopt typical urban attitudes and behaviors, are aware of the fact that they are urban individuals, actors and shareholders and behave accordingly, is built with psychological principles such as reconciliation and empathy.
The reason why the cultural and artistic potential in the city is so diverse that can appeal to the people of all kinds and tastes in a wide aesthetic range is this formal canon.
Because the city is also a hybrid ecosystem. It is chaotic. As our subject is music, if we corroborate it with a proper expression, urbanism means polyphony.
It makes the people of the crowds love their loneliness, and relieves their agony of solitude. He finds peace and comfort. First Steps in Music Career The political climate in Turkey in that period can be described as the eve of a time when the action and chaos were dominant in terms of social events and structurally the eve of a quick squatting period.
Cities were on the verge attracting rural population and faced a serious demographic obesity. There was a social mobility where social separations like rich-poor and urban-peasant and ghettoization in metropolises started to emerge, and the class differences gradually increased.
Ortacgil sees this period when he just started his music career as a lucky period when he looks from his own musical angle. During that time, Turkish classical music and folk music which was a deep-rooted music genre based on the folkloric tradition were dominant in Turkey. Arabesque music, which evolved from this kind and became very popular among people of rural origin in the city, was banned on state televisions and radios during the 70s and 80s.
He was listening to music like crazy. He was obsessed with some musicians. His eyes and ears were always on the West. In the late 60s, he was following the Anglo-Saxon music groups which were set up with a high acceleration of musicality and appreciation.. Anglo-Saxon music groups began to be followed with admiration. However, his biggest admiration was for The Beatles, and he knew all its songs in detail including their stories. The theoretical analysis that can be reached from this principle is that the rock music genre that developed in the West at the end of the 60s have the feature of social expression.
Socially, a great renewal and refreshing trend started. All these broke the routine. His music seemed to move one step beyond the spirit of time for these lands. For Ortacgil, wide valleys where he can expand in the geography of music did not emerge yet.
In the first half of the 70s, he spent time with more folkloric-based musical quests and academic education on chemical engineering. In this album where he worked with names such as Onno Tunc and Ergun Pekakcan, the veteran musicians of the Western-origin arrangements with Turkish lyrics, there are wonderful songs that first come to mind when we think of Ortacgil and the melodies of which have been engraved in our memories. In various interviews with the artist, his words about the modesty of the commercial gain he obtained from this album revealed the fact that Ortacgil songs still cannot meet the masses.
The singer was only able to buy a Dual pickup with the revenue from this album. No one could have predicted that it would be released by the World Psychedelia Company in the United States thirty years after the release of the album, and after forty years its long play version would sell like hot cakes in the Turkish music market.
In fact, it can be thought as the names for the performances of the great masters of the art produced by the unique minds. As these definitions, stereotyped term of Ortacgil lover will emerge with the 2nd Stage album. The artist has taken a break of nearly ten years in his music career.
During this interim he returned to the chemical engineering business and even lived in Norway for a while. Many compositions and albums that have great impact on Turkish music would emerge from this cooperation. The artist states that his songs are in a flow of meaning that leads to thinking, and he tries to ensure that his music is in such clarity not obscure these deep metaphors.
In the lyrics where the subtextual fiction and imaginative richness are at the highest level, listeners find traces of their own life adventures and thus become more integrated with composition and poetry. A simple philosophy, the glory of the routine and the ordinary are the dominant colors in the poetic range of Ortacgil. All the songs of Ortacgil, which we love as we listen to and which make us lower our colors as we try to understand, are like cuts on our personal past that aches when we look their scars.
Who is Bulent Ortacgil? Bulent Ortacgil is a leading figure who has been actively involved in the history of Turkish pop and rock music since the beginning of the 70s, and opened new doors to his contemporaries and the next generation musicians with his discography enriched with his personal musical style and songs written and composed by himself. Tunes By The Urban Poet The artist, who is known as the urban poet, has chosen to live in metropolises, inside crowds, in a chaotic environment where everyone experiences a different life struggle, to fall in love, to tell the beautiful sides and sorrows of life.
From this point of view, the songs he sang with a clean Turkish and a rich musicality are like separate and valuable parts of an unfinished novel. Naive and Ironic Assumptions There is a rich philosophy in the lyrics of Ortacgil. Very normal And the Works, travels?
All normal And you and me? He said normal And we two? Very normal I said and our mood? What he said? Normal Can someone tell what is this normal? I am bored, am I abnormal? Biraz ileride eski bir cami gelecekti. Bak onu severdim. Celil Oker Kimdir? One of the leading authors of the detective novel genre which was on the rise in Turkey in the 90s is Celil Oker. The author succeeded to create riveting plots and vivid characters in his works based on a solid fiction.
However, his real success is his depiction of space and his attention to details. Today, in almost all over the world, in the works written in the genre of detective novels, the thought and lifestyle of modern society is questioned and the social image of the crime is gaining importance.
In the novels of the author, the paths of rich people cross with the poor due to the murders. In these novels, the places that have the function of emphasizing the contrast between these two sides generally appear as mansions, villa-cities, building complexes, slums, bars, casinos, shopping malls, big hotels, luxury offices, medium-sized student houses and neglected work places. Istanbul is the main background. Cities, Books and Writers In world literature, it is seen that many big cities inspire novels; moreover these cities are associated with certain authors.
This relationship between the novel and the city appears more strongly in the genre of detective novels. The fact that there is a detective traveling around Istanbul and it is read by foreign readers is one of the things I enjoy most.
It is very important for me to create a character who travels in a unique city like Istanbul. My hero usually wanders the places where I live. We also have a technology that makes it easier for us to do research and look around.
In the internet, we can find and depict the street where the adventure takes place. Celil Oker introduces the people of Istanbul in his novels. His works include taxi drivers, simit Turkish bagel sellers, national lottery sellers, mobile bookstores, kebab shops, parking stewards, snatchers, wanders, real estate agents, kokorec sellers, sellers of roasted chestnuts.
These novels are the stories of Istanbul as well as the stories of crime and changing social life. He tells the ancient traces of the people of Istanbul and the city, as well as the people of small towns and the reflections of their culture in the city. While describing Istanbul in his works, the author does not limit his aim to praising the metropolis; he tries to reflect the city where he lives in a realistic way.
Corruption in city life has turned human relations into interests. Corruption in the city life has turned human relations into a relationship of interest. In these works, we can see how the detective novel is nourished by the sociological data. Two out of three answers would be a lie. If they were correct, they would be distorted. When I subtract the wrong ones from the right answers, no one would like the result. Celil Oker argues that Istanbul, where the rate of planned murder based on interests has risen rapidly, has begun to settle in a parallel position with other metropolitan cities of the world.
Upstaging Corpse Celil Oker tries to show the dark side of Istanbul, which contains the ugliness of the metropolitan city as well as the relaxing physical beauties. Pickpockets, street children using drugs, burning traffic problems, environmental pollution, and unplanned urbanization damaging the historical fabric are the issues that come into view of Remzi Unal, who spends most of his time outside.
In Upstaging Corpse, he realistically tells the details within his view in this district of Istanbul, while he goes to Pandora Bookstore in Beyoglu to meet Seyda Tapan. The traffic problem and neglected roads of the metropolitan city sometimes infuriate Remzi Unal who always has to go to a place with his car.
In The Last Corpse, Remzi Unal made an agreement with Muazzez Guler to find her dealer Sinan who did not pay the debts and he was worried as he embarks on a new adventure. The shopping centers that are gradually expanding their presence among the details specific to Istanbul, new and characterless buildings that appear alongside few old and elaborate architectural structures also disturb Remzi Unal.
The author tries to show the difference between the old and the new Istanbul, claiming that Istanbul is becoming more and more unappealing in terms of architecture. A little later, an old mosque would come. Actually, I liked it. Remzi Unal pursues people because of his work; he sometimes follows them secretly and sometimes visits them.
He walks into their homes and businesses unannounced to get to know people and catch clues. These travels give Remzi Unal the opportunity to see the city as a whole, to evaluate it and to notice the changes. Like some amateur writers who just provide navigation information, Celil Oker does not look at Istanbul with a superficial attention. In addition, he is respectful to the places of the past that give identity to the city where he lives and the real Istanbulites who grow with the aesthetics and good manners of these places.
As a result of rapid urbanization, the erosion in the city in all respects disturbs the detective who has an improved aesthetic sensitivity. Image Of The Cities In the detective novels that choose Istanbul as the place, the sounds specific to this city also help the formation of a city image.
Remzi Unal, on the other hand, loves Istanbul all the way as a person living in this city.
The Menderes Period (1950-1960)
Teaching and learning in the madrasas of Istanbul during the late Ottoman period