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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. The dependence of the literary structure of Ex on the way how God made the covenant with Abram Gen The dependence of the literary structure of Ex on the way how God made the covenant with Abram Gen 15 W.

Wojciech Kosek. The present paper reminds first that the passage of the fire and smoke between the halves of the divided animals Gen was the passage of signs of God who made the covenant with Abram in this way. Then one proved that that passage is the historical source of interpretation for the analogous passage and covenant-making, namely for the passage of the pillar of fire and cloud, the signs of God who was passing with Israel between the halves of the waters of the Sea of Reeds cf.

Ex Table of contents: Introduction. The dividing of the sea waters Ex as an act analogous to the act of cutting an animal. The splitting of the waters of the Sea of Reeds in the Book of Exodus. The summary of the analyses of the act of cutting the sea. The prophecy of Jeremiah about the covenant-making between the Lord and Israel on the day of bringing them out from Egypt. The elements of the covenant in the Book of the Prophet Jeremiah The summary of the study of the Book of the Prophet Jeremiah.

The first allegorical history of Israel. The second allegorical history of Israel. The third allegorical history of Israel. One has shown in the previous analyses1 that the Book of Exodus has a literary structure composed of six elements which are the consecutive pericopes: ; ; ; ; ; At the end of that research, one pointed out that the passage of the Lord in the signs of fire and cloud and of Israel between the halves of the divided sea resembles the passage of the partners of the ancient covenant between the halves of the divided animals.

In the present paper, one will verify this observation by detailed analyses of the biblical texts. The analogies between the announcements of this pericope and their fulfillment in the relation of Ex will complement these first analyses.

Next, the very act of moving sea waters apart will be shown as analogous to the splitting of an animal serving for the passage of the covenant partners between its halves. The significance of this crucial text, one will confirm by the analysis of the other prophetic speeches of Jeremiah and Ezekiel3.

The fundamental methodological assumption of this part of the work we based on the observation of R. Meynet5, who emphasizes that it is not enough in the analysis of the text 1 Cf. The present paper is an English translation of the first part of its second chapter: p.

The second part of it p. Jankowskiego w One must add that translation of point 2. One should notice that the works of Polish biblical scholars also make it possible to undertake such a logic of the research method6. The Book of Genesis in chapter 15 presents the covenant-making between God and Abram. When Abram had believed in the promise of many offspring, God commanded him to prepare the animals. Abram split them in two and placed each half opposite the other.

With the sun had set and it was dark, the smoke and the fire, the signs of the God, passed between the halves. Thus the Lord, following the custom of human covenants of that time, passing between the halves of cut animals, made a covenant with Abram8. In both cases, the author points out the identity of the literary scheme of the analyzed book with that of the ancient one, within the framework of which it was customary to describe the making of a covenant in the Ancient East.

Biblia i Ewangelia, Warszawa , p. One searched with BibleWorks 6. The psalmist inspired by God in his perceiving of both presented salvific events sees Gen 15 as the source for the understanding of events described in Ex 14, according to how God understands them.

For the historical event was not subject to arbitrary or unauthorized interpretation by hagiographers, but was presented and interpreted by them as the Holy Spirit intended, even though hagiographers wrote in the human language of the concepts of their culture.

Gen ; Ex before the passage; Israelites heard the same words before the making the covenant at Sinai! Od chrztu w Jordanie do Przemienienia, translated by W. Can we deduct the same for the passage recorded in Ex ? Perhaps — yes! The analogies set forth above between Gen 15 and many significant places in Ex seem to indicate the hidden but intended actually by the hagiographer meaning of that passage between the waters of the divided sea: thus the Lord made a covenant15 with the descendants of Abraham.

The important thing is that in both cases the passage takes place between divided entities. The analogy between Gen 15 and Ex 14 is evident in the background of other possible ways of obtaining halves, from which God chose this one: He cut the sea in half. Further analyses will serve to check the research intuition indicated here The sacrificial dimension is not present in the description of the passage through the Sea of Reeds, so the comparison of the two events does not take place within its framework.

Not the victim is the binding element, but the transition between the halves. Psa 81; ; ; contain all this rite. Psa 78; ; and do not contain the whole of it; they are a lyrical transposition of one of its elements — of the speech showing the history of the covenant. In point 2. Translation of point 2. Ex through the desert as a religious procession, in which the main stages are marked by the dates of the feasts commanded by God.

The author refers to M. Analyses of the further part of this work will reveal the value of this intuition in a new light. The words highlighted in the text indicate the necessity of reading both verses together as complementary thoughts.

Hebrew hifil is a causative form of the verb. It also indirectly results from the characteristics of the imperfect conjugation: cf. A Niphal conjugation expresses a passive or reflexive action. So it means in Niphal: to be cleaved, ripped, split, opened, divided, broken. Zimmern, W. Weber, bearbeitet von F. Buhl, sechzehnte Auflage, Leipzig , p. In this sense, it appears in Ex The waters parted, 22 and the Israelites walked through the middle of the sea on dry ground, having a wall of water on the right and left side.

Based on this translation, the reader learns that the Lord, using the wind, dried a part of the sea so that His People could pass on the road between the walls of the waters. One can notice there are translations which indicate more precisely that the waters have been divided — the American version20 for example: NAU Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the LORD swept the sea back by a strong east wind all night and turned the sea into dry land, so the waters were divided. Comparison of translations shows that in order to understand a hagiographer, it is necessary to analyze the text precisely He says that the waters were cut, chopped, torn, split — two separate parts were created, distanced from each other.

In the middle between these two halves, passed the Lord and His People. Wherefore let him diligently apply himself so as to acquire daily a greater facility in biblical as well as in other oriental languages and to support his interpretation by the aids which all branches of philology supply.

In the scientific studies of the text of the Book of the Prophet Isaiah, the biblical scholars point out the fragments that have words and phrases in common with the Book of Exodus. In the framework of the present research, one must point out the significant text contained in the 51st chapter of the Book of Isaiah.

The Prophet predicts in it not only a new exit as in but also in a new way speaks about the exit from Egypt. The analyzed text refers to the history of the ancient generations 24 ab of Israel as the People of the Lord.

When God led Israel out of Egyptian captivity and led them to the shores of the Sea of Reeds, He intervened with His powerful arm in order to consistently carry out the plan to save the redeemed. He brought in the wind so that the waters of the Sea of Reeds moved apart and the redeemed Israel could pass on its bare, dry bottom cf.

The Hebrew participle does not specify the time, so the time results only from the context. Psa ; ; ; Mic — we searched with BibleWorks 6. Petera Stary Testament , ks. However, the commentator states here rightly so!

Isa ; Psa ; Ezek ; For a full understanding of Isa , one will consider the meaning of all the parallel segments and therefore Isa This verb has three meaning groups It occurs in the analyzed sentence in the meaning of the second group: to pierce, hurt, wound, flog.

In this relation, the reality is primordial, while words are supposed to describe reality. Therefore, in exegesis, it is crucial to discover the meaning of words and compare the meaning of all sentences containing words of identical meaning, although not the same set of words! Therefore, below we will analyze different words, but expressing the same thought: cut, break and so on. Saint Jerome has already pointed to this issue: cf.

We must add that the words can be: a equally sounding, although describing different realities the homonymy phenomenon , or b unequally sounding and describing the same reality, or c unequally sounding and describing different realities. In order to examine the reality indicated by the word used by the hagiographer, it is necessary to examine all the places where the word appears in the Scriptures. Then — if there is a homonymy phenomenon of the word — we must select the appropriate meaning for it, based on the examined context, i.

Sometimes it is worthwhile to extend the study to ancient literature.


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