Finite Element Analysis s Senthil. Gas dynamics and jet propulsion. Cohen, G. Zucrow, Aircraft and Missile Propulsion, vol.

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Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Signature of the Author Name : R. He has referred more than five books amount them minimum one is from abroad author. To understand the phenomenon of shock waves and its effect on flow.

To gain some basic Knowledge about Jet propulsion and Rocket Propulsion. CO2: To understand the basic difference between incompressible and compressible flow. CO3: To understand the phenomenon of shock waves and its effect on flow.

CO4: To gain some basic knowledge about Rocket Propulsion and various propellants. CO5: To solve problems in Rayleigh and Fanno flow. PO d design and conduct experiments, analyze, synthesize and interpret the data relevant to complex Mechanical engineering problems and arrive valid conclusions. Anderson, J. Yahya, S. To innovate new ideas in Jet Propulsion and Rocket Propulsion.

Incompressible Flow 2 1. Compressibility and Incompressibility 3 1. Cohen, G. Zucrow, Aircraft and Missile Propulsion, vol. To gain some basic knowledge about jet propulsion and Rocket Propulsion. Hill and C.

Concept of Gas Dynamics Gas dynamics mainly concerned with the motion of gases and its effects. It differ from fluid dynamics. Gas dynamics considers thermal or chemical effects while fluid dynamics usually does not.

Gas dynamics deals with the study of compressible flow when it is in motion. The term gas dynamics is very general and alternative names have been suggested e. It may be said that thermodynamicist is concerned with how an object in motion influenced as it flies through still air.

In contrast to it the thermodynamicist in more interested in the cases in which the object in stationary and the fluid is in motion.

The applications of gas dynamics are givenbelow. Therfore the following laws are frequently used for solving the dynamic problems. Steady flow energy equation 2. Entropy relations 3. Continity equation 4. Momentum equation 1. Incompressible fluids do not undergo significant changes in density as they flow. In general, liquids are incompressible; water being an excellent example. In contrast compressible fluids do undergo density changes.

Gases are generally compressible; air being the most common compressible fluid we can find. Compressibility of gases leads to many interesting features such as shocks, which are absent for incompressible fluids.

Gas dynamics is the discipline that studies the flow of compressible fluids and forms an important branch of Fluid Mechanics. Consider a small element of fluid of volume v, the pressure exerted on the sides of the element is p.

Assume the pressure is now increased by an infinitesimal amount dp. The volume of the element will change by a corresponding amount dv , here the volume decrease so dv is a negative quantity. By definition, the compressibility of fluid is Liquid is an incompressible fluid. A gaseous fluid such as air, on the other hand, can be either compressible or incompressible.

Generally, for theoretical and experimental purposes, gases are assumed to be incompressible when they are moving at low speeds-- under approximately miles per hour. The motion of the object traveling through the air at such speed does not affect the density of the air. This assumption has been useful in aerodynamics when studying the behavior of air in relation to airfoils and other objects moving through the air at slower speeds.

In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, compressibility is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure or mean stress change. Where V is volume and p is pressure. The above statement is incomplete, because for any object or system the magnitude of the compressibility depends strongly on whether the process is adiabatic or isothermal.

Accordingly we define the isothermal compressibilityas: Where the subscript T indicates that the partial differential is to be taken at constant temperature. The adiabatic compressibilityas: Where S is entropy. For a solid, the distinction between the two is usually negligible. The inverse of the compressibility is called the bulk modulus, often denoted K sometimes B.

Compressibility andIncompressibility The terms compressibility and incompressibility describe the ability of molecules in a fluid to be compacted or compressed made more dense and their ability to bounce back to their original density, in other words, their "springiness. A gaseous fluid such as air, on the other hand, can be either However, when aircraft began traveling faster than miles per hour, assumptions regarding the air through which they flew that were true at slower speeds were no longer valid.

At high speeds some of the energy of the quickly moving aircraft goes into compressing the fluid the air and changing its density.

The air at higher altitudes where these aircraft fly also has lower density than air nearer to the Earth's surface. The airflow is now compressible, and aerodynamic theories have had to reflect this.

Aerodynamic theories relating to compressible airflow characteristics and behavior are considerably more complex than theories relating to incompressible airflow.

The noted aerodynamicist of the early 20th century, Ludwig Prandtl, contributed the Prandtl-Glaubert rule for subsonic airflow to describe the compressibility effects of air at high speeds. At lower altitudes, air has a higher density and is considered incompressible for theoretical and experimentalpurposes. The negative sign -sign is included to make E positive, since increase in pressure would decrease the volume i.

This law is applicable to the steady flow systems. Consider an open system-through which the working substance flows as a steady rate. The working substance entering the system at 1 and leaves the system at 2.

P2, v2 , c2, U2 and Z2 - Corresponding values for the working substance leaving the system. Note that the momentum principle is applicable even when there are frictional dissipative processes within the control volume.

The streamlines are stationary in space, so there is no external work done on the fluid as it flows. If there is also no heat transferred to the flow adiabatic , Stagnation enthalpy of a gas or vapor is its enthalpy when it is adiabatically decelerated to zero velocity at zero elevation. We know that, Stagnation enthalpy We have stagnation enthalpy and static enthalpy for a perfect gas is, By substituting this in above equation, Divide by Cp through out the eqn.

For isentropic flow. For stagnation condition, Eg: flow through nozzles

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## ME6604 - Gas Dynamics and Jet Propulsion

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## Gas dynamics and jet propulsion by dr s senthil

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## GDJP Senthil-Text Book

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