EXOPHORIC REFERENCE PDF

Anaphoric reference occurs when a word or phrase refers to something mentioned earlier in the discourse. Michael went to the bank. He was annoyed because it was closed. He refers to Michael. Anaphoric reference often makes use of the definite article the , because one of the functions of the definite article is to indicate that something has already been mentioned. He sat down at the table and took a small box from his pocket.

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In pragmatics , exophora is reference to something extralinguistic, i. Exophora can be deictic , in which special words or grammatical markings are used to make reference to something in the context of the utterance or speaker.

For example, pronouns are often exophoric, with words such as "this", "that", "here", "there", as in that chair over there is John's said while indicating the direction of the chair referred to. Given "Did the gardener water those plants? But it is also possible that it refers to the environment in which the dialogue is taking place—to the "context of situation", as it is called—where the plants in question are present and can be pointed to if necessary.

The interpretation would be "those plants there, in front of us". This kind of reference is called exophora, since it takes us outside the text altogether. Exophoric reference is not cohesive , since it does not bind the two elements together into a text.

A type of exophora, homophora relates to a generic phrase that obtains a specific meaning through knowledge of its context; a specific example of homophora can variably be a "homophor" or a "homophoric reference".

For example, the meaning of the phrase "the Queen" may be determined by the country in which it is spoken. Because there are many Queens throughout the world, the location of the speaker provides the extra information that allows an individual Queen to be identified.

Halliday and R. Hasan, Cohesion in English Longman, , pp. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Reference to something not in the same text. Hidden categories: Articles with short description All stub articles. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Contribute Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

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Definition and Examples of "Exophora" in English Grammar

The way in which, by different procedures, a whole text is considered as such and the sentence in the text are considered as linked. Cohesive ties can be either grammatical or lexical:. And the living room was very small room with two windows that wouldn't be opened and things like that. And it looked nice. It had a beautiful brick wall. You entered into a tiny little hallway and the kitchen was off that.

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Anaphoric, Cataphoric and Exophoric Referencing

In pragmatics , exophora is reference to something extralinguistic, i. Exophora can be deictic , in which special words or grammatical markings are used to make reference to something in the context of the utterance or speaker. For example, pronouns are often exophoric, with words such as "this", "that", "here", "there", as in that chair over there is John's said while indicating the direction of the chair referred to. Given "Did the gardener water those plants? But it is also possible that it refers to the environment in which the dialogue is taking place—to the "context of situation", as it is called—where the plants in question are present and can be pointed to if necessary. The interpretation would be "those plants there, in front of us".

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