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Aux marges du monde arabe. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Cette subvention permettra aux chercheurs Samir Makdisi et Ibrahim Elbadawi Institution Country. New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change. En partenariat avec l'Organization for Women in Science for the Developing What Has Happened to Arabs? Identity and Face Management Online. In this article, I draw on contemporary theorizing on the concept of face e.

In this paper, the transmission of this list will be analyzed, along with the description of its components, in order to prove the influence of Alexander Romance or Pseudo-Callisthenes on the literary motifs related to the elements of this list.

This has been the case, for instance, of the river of sand or the enormous ants. Full Text Available Jordan English is not used in everyday situations.

Arab students face problems of learning English, both in writing and in speech. They find it hard to learn English in their native country, where language is Arabic. The only way to learn English in Jordan is through formal training, ie inside the classroom foreign language teachers are native speakers of Arabic.

There is little opportunity to learn English through natural interaction in the target language. This is possible only when students are faced with native speakers of English who come to the country as tourists, and this happens very rarely. Problems facing promotion of astronomy in Arab countries. Promotion of astronomy in Arab countries is facing many scientific and technical problems. Teaching astronomy starts very late in schools, with very simple and limited courses.

Many teachers lack a suitable astronomical background, which can lead to incorrect understanding by students of many astronomical ideas and phenomena. Teaching astronomy at higher levels is also very limited, for example: among the 16 universities in Egypt, astronomy is taught in only two faculties of science, just for two years.

Graduate students find many difficulties in obtaining jobs related to astronomical activities and this is a serious limitation on the attraction of the study of astronomy. On the other hand, astronomical institutions are suffering from a serious lack of the new sophisticated equipment, while the budget allotted for maintenance is very small, and there is a serious shortage of technical staff.

The training of astronomers and technicians is badly needed, since good research work depends on modern technological equipment and the complicated software used in controlling such equipment and in data analysis.

Good libraries are needed for promotion of astronomy especially, the Internet facilities available for the staff is very limited. The effects of culture are very clear; many authorities in developing countries believe that astronomy is a luxury. Finally, most of astronomers are engaged with a lot of administration for all matters, so the free time left for science is very limited.

Challenges facing the development of the Arabic chatbot. The future information systems are expected to be more intelligent and will take human queries in natural language as input and answer them promptly. To make such chatbots, different technologies will work together ranging from artificial intelligence to development of semantic resources. Sophisticated chatbots are developed to perform conversation in number of languages. Arabic chatbots can be helpful in automating many operations and serve people who only know Arabic language.

However, the technology for Arabic language is still in its infancy stage due to some challenges surrounding the Arabic language. This paper offers an overview of the chatbot application and the several obstacles and challenges that need to be resolved to develop an effective Arabic chatbot.

Full Text Available This research views the most important obstacles facing the flow of electronic information in Arab world; with an illustration about the effect of each obstacle on the flowing of the information, and the special recommendation to overcome it. Full Text Available Conditions and upheavals, by their characteristics, including people opposition with governments and alteration in regional order, have challenged the US strategic interests in the Middle East region and forced the authorities of Washington to manage and strategize upheavals.

The type of US encounter with the trend of upheavals, approach of the ruling regime, the future of people movement and available alternative, interests, and security of Israel and contradiction between strategic interests and democratic principles were amongst the most important issues facing the United States. The present article is seeking to find the answer to this question that what sort of relationship does exist between United States policies in the Middle East from one hand and recent upheavals in Arab countries on the other hand?

The assumption of the article is that in the past two decades the one sided role of the US in forming the upheavals of Middle East has changed into a bilateral relationship and the behavior of this country in the process of recent upheavals, affected by the presence of the people of Arab countries in internal politics of their own country in numerous cases has changed into a reaction behavior.

Finally, it should be said that contrasts between society and government in Arabic Middle East, is considered as one of the prominent challenges of the US in decision-making process and management of region unrests.

On the other hand, the lack of a specified instruction and strategy by Americans is another problem of the US in this region. Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer affects over one million women annually and is the most common global malignancy among women.

Extensive improvements have taken place in the management of breast cancer in recent years and a higher percentage of women are cured from this disease.

A proper assessment of the quality of life of women with breast cancer is an essential component in disease management. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy- Breast Symptom Index has been commonly used and well-validated among English speaking populations as well as other populations.

Therefore, this study intends to translate, adapt and face -validate the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index into Arabic , specifically in the context of the Lebanese culture. Methods: We conducted forward and backward translation in Arabic , combined with face validity by clinicians.

Results: Study results reinforced the value of the Arabic translated version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index in capturing the quality of life of women with breast cancer in Lebanon. Conclusion: The instrument was perceived to be adequate, appropriate for use, culturally sensitive, simple as well as exhaustive. Challenges faced by Arab women who are interested in becoming physicians.

Understanding the underlying reasons for the under-representation of Arab women within the health care system in Israel is crucial for creating future strategies for intervention, in order to minimize the gaps in the health care system and thus improve the medical services and health status.

Our commentary tries to shed light on the underrepresentation and the marginalization of the Arab women in society in general and in the medical field in specific.

Aux origines du monde. CERN Multimedia. Le monde quantique. Background:Ethnopharmacology has been seen as a multidisciplinary approach for novel drug discovery by providing valuable data about medicinal plants in different cultures. The aim of this ethnopharmacological study was to identify medicinal plants in the Southwest of Mond Mountain in the North of Persian Gulf.

MaterialsandMethods:The medical uses of medicinal plants were gathered from 20 local informants by face to face interviews. The relative frequency of citation FRC and cultural imp It will also therefore contribute to the integrity of healthcare in the long run. Yet there is a paucity of research describing medical residents' satisfaction in the Middle East, and there are no published studies that measure the satisfaction of medical residents trained within the United Arab Emirates UAE.

This makes it difficult to develop a quality residency training program that might meet the needs of both physicians and society. The authors designed a questionnaire to assess medical residents' satisfaction with the Dubai residency training program in order to identify insufficiencies in the training, clinical, and educational aspects. Respondents showed a substantial level of satisfaction with the residency training.

Our findings provide preliminary evidence on the efficiency of different modifications applied to the residency program in UAE. To our knowledge, there has not been any previous study in the Middle East that has analyzed this aspect of medical residents from different specialties. The authors believe that this report can be used as a baseline to monitor the effectiveness of interventions applied in the future toward. Full Text Available Muslim societies are facing the new challenges of cultural and religious diversity.

They are experiencing migratory phenomena, or because they are countries of immigration such as in the Persian Gulf monarchies and emirates or countries that are becoming a new destination of migrants such as Morocco and other North African nations. These challenges are increasingly urgent due to the effects of other globalization vectors such as new communication technologies that cross all boundaries and foster unprecedented conversions.

The purpose of this contribution is limited to the religious aspect of the new forms of diversification faced by Muslim countries.

The goal is to analyze to what extent this process biases traditional ways of managing religious diversity. Abstract: We first review the nonrelativistic lagrangian theory as a framework for the MOND equation. Obstructions to a relativistic version of it are discussed leading up to TeVeS, a relativistic tensor-vector-scalar field theory which displays both MOND and Newtonian limits.

The whys for its. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities. Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans Nieto, This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab….

Cultures of trust: effects of avatar faces and reputation scores on German and Arab players in an online trust-game. Reputation systems as well as seller depictions photos; avatars have been shown to reduce buyer uncertainty and to foster trust in online trading.

With the emergence of globalized e-markets, it remains an urgent question whether these mechanisms, found to be effective for Western cultures, also apply to other cultures. Hypothesizing that members of collectivistic cultures in contrast to those of individualistic cultures would rely more on visual social cues seller faces than on factual information reputation scores , we compared buying decisions of Arab and German participants in an experimental trust game.

Photo-realistic avatars were used instead of photos to control facial features and expressions. The results revealed significant main effects for both reputation scores and avatar faces. Moreover, both variables significantly affected the purchase behavior of Arab as well as German buyers, suggesting cross-cultural universals in the processing of trust cues.

The results have implications for future cross-cultural studies in e-commerce as well as the design of online markets and shared virtual environments. Full Text Available Reputation systems as well as seller depictions photos; avatars have been shown to reduce buyer uncertainty and to foster trust in online trading. Hypothesizing that members of collectivistic cultures in contrast to those of individualistic cultures would rely more on visual social cues seller faces than on factual information reputation scores, we compared buying decisions of Arab and German participants in an experimental trust game.

It is well known that the application of Newtonian dynamics to an expanding spherical region leads to the correct relativistic expression the Friedmann equation for the evolution of the cosmic scalefactor. Reforms and emerging noncommunicable disease: some challenges facing a conflict-ridden country--the case of the Syrian Arab Republic. The past year witnessed considerable turbulence in the Arab world-in this case, Syria, a lower middle-income country with a record of a strong public health infrastructure.

This paper explores the current challenges facing its health system from reforms, civil strife and international sanctions all of which we argue have serious implications for population health.

The health sector in Syria was little known, and until recently, it was well integrated to provide preventive and specialized care when needed. Regionally, it was one of the few countries ready and capable of addressing the challenges of demographic and epidemiologic transition with a long-standing emphasis on primary care and prevention, unlike most countries of the region.

This context has changed dramatically through the recent implementation of reforms and the current civil war. Changes to financing, management and the delivery of health service placed access to services in jeopardy, but now, these are compounded by the destruction from an intractable and violent conflict and international sanctions.

This paper explores some of the combined effects of reforms, conflict and sanctions on population health. Horava-Lifshitz gravity is an attempt to construct a renormalizable theory of gravity by breaking the Lorentz invariance of the gravitational action at high energies.

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