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Receive a convenient email notification whenever a new Nanowerk Nanotechnology Spotlight posts. Become a Spotlight guest author! Have you just published a scientific paper or have other exciting developments to share with the nanotechnology community? Here is how to publish on nanowerk. Posted: Sep 03, Graphene applications for bioelectronics and neuroprosthetics Nanowerk Spotlight The term bioelectronics , or bionics for short, describes a research field that is concerned with the integration of biological components with electronics; specifically, the application of biological materials and processes in electronics, and the use of electronic devices in living systems.
One day, bionics research could result in neural prostheses that augment or restore damaged or lost functions of the nervous system — restore vision, healing spinal cord injuries, and ameliorate neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's. Bioelectronics has benefitted greatly from the miniaturization offered by nanotechnology materials such as carbon nanotubes graphene see for instance our previous Nanowerk Spotlights Eavesdropping on cells with graphene transistors or Nanotechnology to repair the brain.
Graphene bioelectronics has become a ground-breaking field that offers exciting opportunities for developing new kinds of sensors capable of establishing outstanding interfaces with soft tissue see for instance: Light-driven bioelectronic implants without batteries. Graphene-based transistors, as well as electrode arrays, have emerged as a special group of biosensors with their own peculiarities, advantages and drawbacks. Design of graphene-based in vivo neuronal probes.
Open access. The authors, Dmitry Kireev and Prof. Andreas Offenhaeusser, present a comprehensive overview of the use of graphene for bioelectronics applications; specifically they focus on interfacing graphene-based devices with electrogenic cells, such as cardiac and neuronal cells.
Excellent conductivity as well as transistor amplification properties allow graphene to be used for active parts of biosensors with extremely large sensitivities. Starting with a short explanation of graphene-based devices, they then discuss in detail the reasons for the importance of graphene for future bioelectronics. The paper provides a detailed description the working principle of two main graphene-based electronic devices that are currently used in bioelectronics applications: graphene field effect transistors GFETs and graphene multielectrode arrays GMEAs.
The authors discuss in detail the advantages and drawbacks of these devices. The authors in-depth discussion includes past developments in order to provide a profound understanding of fundamental problems that have already been solved in order to guide future research.
Useful for researchers in the field, the paper provides a detailed time line of the development of GFETs and GMEAs, complete with key benchmarking properties. The authors end their review with a structured perspective on future developments expected in the field. Surprisingly, it appears that a myriad of standard bulk materials, such as silicon, germanium, and MoS 2 , whose properties have been known and studied for a long time, change their properties dramatically when thinned down to one or several monolayers.
Some materials become semiconducting, some become fluorescent, and others become superconducting or create specific surface bonds. Other materials, such as 2D Ti 3 C 2 -MXenes, are suddenly sensitive to neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, creating an ultimately interesting device for neuroelectronics.
These articles might interest you as well:. Graphene applications for bioelectronics and neuroprosthetics. Nanowerk Spotlight The term bioelectronics , or bionics for short, describes a research field that is concerned with the integration of biological components with electronics; specifically, the application of biological materials and processes in electronics, and the use of electronic devices in living systems.
In their review, the authors focus on a special kind of device that utilizes graphene as its active sensor material for extracellular signal detection.
The authors believe that the most intriguing outcome of the discovery of graphene has been the formation of a new research field: 2D materials science.
Bioelectronics: The Bionic Material
Bioelectronics: The bionic material
Bioelectronics is a field of research in the convergence of biology and electronics. At the first C. Workshop, in Brussels in November , bioelectronics was defined as 'the use of biological materials and biological architectures for information processing systems and new devices'. Bioelectronics, specifically bio-molecular electronics, were described as 'the research and development of bio-inspired i. Department of Commerce, defined bioelectronics in a report as "the discipline resulting from the convergence of biology and electronics". A key aspect is the interface between biological materials and micro and nano-electronics. The first known study of bioelectronics took place in the 18th century, when scientist Luigi Galvani applied a voltage to a pair of detached frog legs.