Kanyshkova, and V. Lavrentieva 8, Novosibirsk, Russia; E-mail: Nevinsky niboch. Received April 10, ; Revision received June 5, This review summarizes literature data on natural abzymes. Peculiar features of their functioning and substrate specificity are considered in comparison with traditional enzymes. Working hypotheses on the possible biological roles of natural abzymes in autoimmune processes and diseases accompanied by disorders of immune status are analyzed.
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Creative Enzymes has been active in the enzyme industry for several years. In addition to conventional enzymatic techniques, we are also dedicated to development of emerging new sciences. Creative Enzymes provides design and synthesis services for abzymes, based on the knowledge and professional skills in molecular biology.
To date abzymes display only weak to modest catalytic activities and have not been proved to be of any practical use. They are, however, subjects of considerable research interest.
Abzymes can be designed to catalyze a wide range of reactions, not performed by natural enzymes. Newest developments in abzymes technology exploit combinatorial libraries displayed on the surface of phages, a method which enormously enlarge the possible size of the library. Furthermore, abzymes have potentials in clinical research, for example they can be used as activate prodrugs.
To facilitate the promising research, Creative Enzymes offers various techniques including hapten design for abzymes design and synthesis. Please do not hesitate to contact us for more information. For price inquiries, please feel free to contact us through the form on the left side.
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Abzymes: An Introduction
Antibodies or immunoglobulins are essential proteins for human immunological functioning. Antibodies are expressed on the membrane of B cells, a type of white blood cell essential for the adaptive immune response. After B cells are activated, they can differentiate into plasma cells that produce the same antibody in large quantities and expel it through exocytosis. Abzymes are these same molecules but with the addition of catalytic activity, a property rarely seen in antibodies naturally, and are currently seeing exciting development in various therapeutic fields. Enzymes catalyze reactions that would otherwise be too slow for a biological time scale, and do this by having the following roles:. Antibodies are most likely to be able to replicate the first three roles, but not the last two. This partial catalytic activity is reflected in the catalytic rate of abzymes, which is significantly lower than their enzyme counterparts.
An abzyme from antibody and enzyme , also called catmab from catalytic monoclonal antibody , and most often called catalytic antibody , is a monoclonal antibody with catalytic activity. Abzymes are usually raised in lab animals immunized against synthetic haptens, but some natural abzymes can be found in normal humans anti-vasoactive intestinal peptide autoantibodies and in patients with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus , where they can bind to and hydrolyze DNA. To date abzymes display only weak, modest catalytic activity and have not proved to be of any practical use. Studying them has yielded important insights into reaction mechanisms, enzyme structure and function, catalysis, and the immune system itself. Enzymes function by lowering the activation energy of the transition state of a chemical reaction, thereby enabling the formation of an otherwise less-favorable molecular intermediate between the reactant s and the product s. If an antibody is developed to bind to a molecule that is structurally and electronically similar to the transition state of a given chemical reaction, the developed antibody will bind to, and stabilize, the transition state, just like a natural enzyme, lowering the activation energy of the reaction, and thus catalyzing the reaction. By raising an antibody to bind to a stable transition-state analog, a new and unique type of enzyme is produced.